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[
{
"number": 106,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I just had a breast biopsy for cancer. What are the most common types?",
"passage": "More research is needed. Types Breast cancer can be: Ductal carcinoma: This begins in the milk duct and is the most common type. Lobular carcinoma: This starts in the lobules. Invasive breast cancer is when the cancer cells break out from inside the lobules or ducts and invade nearby tissue, increasing the chance of spreading to other parts of the body. Non-invasive breast cancer is when the cancer is still inside its place of origin and has not broken out.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I just had a breast biopsy for cancer. What are the most common types of breast cancer?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D59865",
"passage_id": 7,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the most common types of cancer in regards to breast biopsy?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Once it breaks out, how likely is it to spread?",
"passage": "Even though this condition doesn’t spread, it’s important to keep an eye on it. Between 20% to 40% of women with this condition will develop a separate invasive breast cancer -- one that will grow outside its original location -- within the next 15 years. Most of the time, these later cancers begin in the milk ducts, rather than the lobules. How is lobular carcinoma in situ diagnosed? You often won’t have any symptoms with LCIS.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Once it breaks out, how likely is lobular carcinoma breast cancer to spread?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D684514",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Once the cancer breaks out, how likely is it to spread?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How deadly is it?",
"passage": "In 1999, a student opened fire at W. R. Myers, killing one student and seriously wounding another. In 2000, LCI was locked down after two youths were arrested and two firearms were seized. Section::::Campus.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How deadly is lobular carcinoma in situ?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_1845197",
"passage_id": 7,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How deadly is LCIS?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "What? No, I want to know about the deadliness of lobular carcinoma in situ.",
"passage": "It’s sometimes difficult to separate the two conditions and in this case it will be described as lobular neoplasia. Future breast cancer risk The vast majority of women diagnosed with ALH or LCIS will never get breast cancer. However, people diagnosed with either condition have a slightly higher risk than the general population of developing breast cancer. PLCIS behaves differently to ALH and LCIS, and may be more likely to develop into cancer in the future. Your individual risk depends on several factors, which your specialist can talk to you about.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What? No, I want to know about the deadliness of lobular carcinoma in situ.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D684519",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the deadliness of lobular carcinoma in situ?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Wow, that's better than I thought. What are common treatments?",
"passage": "Treatment and follow-up There is no standard recommended treatment or follow-up for lobular neoplasia. Your specialist will discuss treatment options with you based on your particular situation. If your lobular neoplasia is diagnosed by a core biopsy, your doctor may recommend removing more tissue from the area where the lobular neoplasia was found. This is to find out if there are any cancer cells in this area. This may be done using a procedure called a vacuum assisted biopsy, or a small operation known as an excision biopsy.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Wow, that's better than I thought. What are common treatments for lobular carcinoma in situ?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D684519",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are common treatments for lobular carcinoma in situ?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "How does it behave differently from PLCIS?",
"passage": "Wilson said she has “vigilantly monitored” her health with mammograms and MRIs after knowing she had an “underlying condition of LCIS, (lobular carcinoma in situ).” When a recent breast biopsy revealed PLCIS (pleomorphic carcinoma in situ), initial tests showed that it was not cancerous. But Wilson had second thoughts. “A friend who had had breast cancer suggested I get a second opinion on my pathology and my gut told me that was the thing to do,” she wrote. When she went to two other pathologists, both confirmed a cancer diagnosis. “I share this to educate others that a second opinion is critical to your health,” she said. “You have nothing to lose if both opinions match up for the good, and everything to gain if something that was missed is found, which does happen. Early diagnosis is key.” Wilson is the second celebrity in a week to do a public service announcement for early cancer detection. Last week, Taylor Swift revealed that her mother had recently been diagnosed with cancer, and urged her fans to remind their parents about getting screened.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How does LCIS behave differently from PLCIS?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_287054c7bde1638c0b667c364b97b632",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How does LCIS behave differently from ALH and LCIS?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "What makes lobular cancer distinct?",
"passage": "Invasive lobuluar cancer is a less common type of breast cancer than invasive ductal cancer. This cancer accounts for about 10% of all invasive breast cancer cases. Prognosis for infiltrating and invasive lobular breast carcinomas will naturally be influenced by tumor size, grade, stage and hormone receptor status.. However, lobular breast cancers, when positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, tend to respond very well to hormone therapy. The overall breast cancer survival rates for infiltrating lobular carcinoma, when matched by stage, are a little higher than for ductal carcinoma for the first 5 years. Survival rates range from about 77% to 93%, but on average the 5 year survival rate was estimated at about 90%. How old are these figures, Doc? The general range of survival 77% to 93% is over 10 years old so expect higher now. The average survival rate of 90% was as of 2010, so still quite old. Infiltrating/Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC)Infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the generic type (NOS) is by far the most common breast cancer type, and represents about 78% of all cases.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What makes lobular cancer distinct?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3307814",
"passage_id": 11,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What makes lobular cancer distinct from PLCIS?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "For the first stage, what are the alternatives to surgery?",
"passage": "Regardless of the histological subtype, the prognosis of IDC depends also on tumor size, presence of cancer in the lymph nodes, histological grade, presence of cancer in small vessels (vascular invasion), expression of hormone receptors and of oncogenes like HER2/neu. These parameters can be entered into models that provide a statistical probability of systemic spread. The probability of systemic spread is a key factor in determining whether radiation and chemotherapy are worthwhile. The individual parameters are important also because they can predict how well a cancer will respond to specific chemotherapy agents. Overall, the 5-year survival rate of invasive ductal carcinoma was approximately 85% in 2003. Section::::Treatment. Treatment of invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) depends on the size of the mass (size of the",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "For the first stage, what are the alternatives to surgery for invasive lobular cancer?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_2091783",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "For the first stage of IdC, what are the alternatives to surgery?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "No, I meant for lobular.",
"passage": "The breast cancer has been detected in the early stages and can be very effectively treated. Stage 1 can be divided into Stage 1A and Stage 1B. The difference is determined by the size of the tumor and the lymph nodes with evidence of cancer. Stage 1A breast cancer means the following description applies: The tumor is smaller than the approximate size of a peanut (2 centimeters or smaller) AND has not spread to the lymph nodes. Stage 1B breast cancer means one of the following descriptions applies: Lymph nodes have cancer evidence with small clusters of cells between the approximate size of a pinprick to the approximate width of a grain of rice (.2mm to 2.0 mm). AND EITHER No actual tumor is found in the breast. OR The tumor is smaller than the approximate size of a peanut (2 centimeters or smaller). Similar to stage 0, breast cancer at this stage is very treatable and survivable. When breast cancer is detected early, and is in the localized stage, the 5-year relative survival rate is 100%.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant - what are the alternatives to surgery for stage 1 invasive lobular cancer.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D604580",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant for lobular carcinoma."
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "Does freezing work?",
"passage": "Cryoablation is another local treatment for single, small metastatic breast cancer tumors, especially in women who aren't good surgery candidates. Guided by imaging (ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), cryoablation inserts a special freezing probe (a type of catheter) through the skin and to the tumor to be treated. Once the tip of the probe is in the right spot inside the tumor core, pressurized argon gas is injected through the probe into the tumor, freezing and destroying the cancerous tissue. Cryoablation techniques may vary from one cancer treatment facility to another. Cryoablation is more common in cases where the breast cancer is being well controlled by systemic treatments.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Does freezing tumors work as an alternative to surgery for stage 1 invasive lobular cancer?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D909677",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Does freezing work for breast cancer?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 107,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "How do I build a cheap driveway?",
"passage": "Types of Driveways – Gravel, asphalt, brick & concrete driveway Gravel Driveways – These driveways are usually created by dunking a load of gravel and leveling it. Gravel driveways are cheap, can last can last of a very long time and require little maintenance. The surface should also be regraded from time to time. The only disadvantage is that homeowners need to remove weeds and clean small dust, leaves when they appear. This type of driveway is not suitable for children because they can choke or dig into your gravel and the gravel is too sharp for their feet. Asphalt Driveways – This type of driveway looks a lot like a tarred road and is constructed by tarring or cementing a gravel sheet.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How do I build a cheap driveway?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D188443",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do I build a cheap driveway?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Which is cheaper: concrete or asphalt?",
"passage": "\"Pros and Cons: Asphalt vs. Concrete Driveway Choosing the driveway material that’s best for you often depends on your climate and budget. When the time comes to install a new driveway, the biggest decision is whether to use concrete or asphalt. Sure, there are other driveway material choices — gravel at the low end and brick pavers at the high end — but concrete and asphalt are the most common, and each comes with advantages and disadvantages. Concrete lasts longer, but asphalt driveways are less expensive to install. Asphalt needs more maintenance, but is generally easier to repair. In winter, concrete driveways can suffer damage if you use the wrong de-icing product.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which is cheaper way to build a driveway: concrete or asphalt?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D170348",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which is cheaper: concrete or asphalt driveways?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Really? What type of product?",
"passage": "What Rock Salt is Safe for Concrete? Although we all know that snow and ice can create dangerous conditions throughout our properties, we also don’t want to create even bigger issues by using the wrong ice melting product. In recent years, a growing number of home and business owners have become increasingly concerned about the effects of rock salt on concrete. But what problems can rock salt actually present to concrete, and what are some best practices for preventing ice while protecting your pavement? This post will answer these and other questions so that you can make rock salt safe for concrete within your property lines.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What type of de-icing product can damage concrete driveways?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1670374",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What type of product is the wrong de-icing product?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "Who knew? Which is more environmentally friendly?",
"passage": "Rock salt is very inexpensive but also a corrosive and concentrated substance, which can cause problems for your plants, animals, and waterways. The same chemical magic that turns ice into water creates a very salty brine that can make household pets sick, kill lawns and eats away at concrete, brick, and stone. Salt is also an irritant, which means pets with pads on the bottom of their feet may get superficial burns. The ice-melt industry is well aware that people want green. Which means eco-friendly and pet friendly claims abound. Read the ingredients. If the bulk of the product is magnesium or calcium chloride, it is a safer and less corrosive salt than the more common sodium chloride or rock salt.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which type of driveway is more environmentally friendly?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D789540",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Who knew that rock salt was more environmentally friendly?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "No. Which type of driveway is better for the environment?",
"passage": "These types of surfaces canalso be better for the environment and do not necessarily cost more or require a lot of maintenance. There are three main types of solution to creating a permeable driveway: Using gravel or a mainly green, vegetated area. Directing water from an impermeable surface to a border rain garden or soakaway. Using permeable block paving, porous asphalt or concrete. The most appropriate construction will depend on factors such as the space available, slopes, the type of soil and whether the existing garden gets waterlogged. You can also combine the methods in a single garden to get an interesting appearance.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No. Which type of driveway is better for the environment?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3384006",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which type of driveway is better for the environment?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "And most low-maintenance?",
"passage": "Cost Chart: Paver Driveway – #1 – Most Expensive Concrete Driveway – #2Asphalt Driveway – #3Gravel Driveway – #4 – Least Expensive A concrete driveway is the second most expensive driveway when comparing it to the other hard surface driveways. Ongoing Maintenance Chart: Gravel Driveway – #1 – Most Ongoing Maintenance Asphalt Driveway – #2Concrete Driveway – #3Paver Driveway – #4 – Least Ongoing Maintenance A concrete driveway requires the second least amount of ongoing maintenance, compared to the other hard surface driveways. Life Expectancy Of A Concrete Driveway A properly installed concrete driveway with regularly scheduled maintenance can last up to 20 or even 30 years! That variation in age can be determined by the stability of the sub-grade, the quality of the installation, the type and frequency of maintenance, the drainage plan and the climate of the region you’re located in.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which type of driveway is the most low-maintenance?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1391471",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "And most low-maintenance driveways?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Really? What about asphalt?",
"passage": "Asphalt Driveways Asphalt is one of the most commonly chosen materials for paving driveways and parking lots. During installation, the area will need to be excavated and graded to be paved and allow the base to settle before applying the hot mix asphalt and compacting it with a heavy duty roller. After it has fully curated is when the driveway would be ready for use. Advantages of Asphalt Driveways Asphalt driveways offer a number of advantages including: Longevity – When an asphalt driveway is professionally installed and properly maintained it can last for up to 30 years before needing to be replaced.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Really? How long does an asphalt driveway last?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1552113",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about asphalt driveways?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "Is sealing worth it?",
"passage": "Home > Home Improvement > Landscaping > Cost to Seal a Driveway How Much Does Sealing an Asphalt Driveway Cost? Asphalt Sealing Prices Whether you want to keep your recently paved asphalt driveway looking brand new or extend the life of an older driveway, sealcoating is a worthwhile investment. Sealant forms a layer of protection on top of the driveway that reduces the deleterious effects of the elements and chemicals. In addition to preserving the driveway, a coat of sealant improves a home's curb appeal and value. Driveway Sealing Considerations The cosmetic and performance benefits of driveway sealing make this job practically a no-brainer.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Is sealing an asphalt driveway worth it?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D657751",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Is sealing a driveway worth it?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 108,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "How can fires help an ecosystem?",
"passage": "Many ecosystems, particularly prairie, savanna, chaparral and coniferous forests, have evolved with fire as an essential contributor to habitat vitality and renewal. [1] Many plant species in fire-affected environments require fire to germinate, establish, or to reproduce. Wildfire suppression not only eliminates these species, but also the animals that depend upon them. [2]Campaigns in the United States have historically molded public opinion to believe that wildfires are always harmful to nature. This view is based on the outdated belief that ecosystems progress toward an equilibrium and that any disturbance, such as fire, disrupts the harmony of nature. More recent ecological research has shown, however, that fire is an integral component in the function and biodiversity of many natural habitats, and that the organisms within these communities have adapted to withstand, and even to exploit, natural wildfire.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How can fires help an ecosystem?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D358123",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can fires help an ecosystem?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Give me some examples.",
"passage": "Not only will the number of thriving annual plants be higher after a fire, but the number of species will also be significantly higher. This is due not only to the fact that there are more resources available but also because several plant species in chaparral biomes are so adapted to the cycle of periodic fires that their seeds are only able to sprout after a fire. Photo of a chaparral ecosystem the winter after a fire For example, the seeds of a native chaparral wildflower, called whispering bells, require smoke exposure to germinate. These annual plant species are sometimes called fire-followers because they are only seen in the first couple of years following a fire when they are a part of the dominant vegetation in a chaparral ecosystem.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Give me some examples of organisms that have adapted to exploit natural wildfire.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1834334",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Give me some examples of how fires help an ecosystem."
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Cool name! What are other fire-followers?",
"passage": "The longleaf pine ecosystem is known as a fire climax community. The organization group Longleaf Alliance defines a fire climax community as \"a plant and animal community that is limited by and adapted to an early successional stage by frequent fire disturbances\". The role of fire in the longleaf pine ecosystem was and still is today a key component in regeneration and shaping of the ecosystem. In pre-European establishment years, Native Americans set fires quite regularly. By doing so, they benefited their needs of establishing hunting grounds, homesteads, and safe havens. While achieving their goals, they were enriching the longleaf pine ecosystem by shaping the dynamics of the system.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Cool name! What are other organisms besides whispering bells that have adapted to exploit natural wildfires?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_38497714",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are other fire-followers in addition to whispering bells?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "Let’s talk about other environmental influences besides fire. More broadly, what are the effects of agriculture?",
"passage": "That agriculture has a huge effect on our ecosystems: pesticides and other toxic chemicals used in food production can wash downstream, killing many types of animals, polluting our waterways and even making humans ill. Fertilizers can wash downstream, causing \"\"blooms\"\" or large populations of algae and bacteria, which can harm fish populations. In addition, Green Facts states that we are depleting fish populations in the oceans and seas, causing us to fish further offshore and deeper underwater as more and more fish disappear. Water Throughout the world, 2.6 billion people lack proper sanitation, which means that drinking water around the world is contaminated with waste and disease.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Let’s talk about other environmental influences besides fire. How does agriculture affect an ecosystem?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1666602",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the effects of agriculture on the longleaf pine ecosystem besides fire?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Can it cause desertification?",
"passage": "Most plants, unless specially adapted to desert conditions, can not thrive in dry, arid conditions. Farming is major cause of desertification - soils need time to rest between crops but pressures to provide food and an income often lead to soil and land being over used and becoming tired. Soil also requires fertilisation to remain fertile, preferably through natural or organic processes. Where farming is carried out in a way that is unsympathetic to the land in places where climatic conditions mean the soil is already under stress, this can eventually result in desertification. Read More: How Big a Problem is Desertification?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Can agriculture cause desertification?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1183466",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can fire cause desertification?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "What does it mean to be tired?",
"passage": "Section::::Regenerative agriculture. Agriculture is seen to be one of the main players in the depletion of soil richness in human history. Certain agricultural practices can deplete soil of carbon, such as monoculture, failing to rotate crops sufficiently, and intensive livestock grazing. Soil that is low in carbon will not support plant life and is susceptible to desertification. Without plants, soil cannot hold water sufficiently, and will become dry and brittle over time. Agroecology is an overarching category of approaches to creating a more sustainable agricultural system and increase the health of soil. It includes \"permaculture\", originally being a combination of the words \"permanent\" and \"agriculture\", which is a systems thinking approach that can increase the carbon content of soil by using natural patterns in already existing ecosystems to promote a higher efficiency of food production, a lower need for human involvement, and a healthier ecosystem.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What does it mean for soil to be tired?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_48579721",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What does desertification mean to be tired?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "That sounds like organic farming. How are they related?",
"passage": "According to Permaculture Planet.com:“Permaculture is an interdisciplinary earth science which encompasses many kinds of appropriate technologies and sustainable design methodologies, such as; renewable energy, water conservation, organic food production, ecological building techniques, micro-economics and more. In a world of rapid ecological change & seemingly insurmountable social & environmental problems, Permaculture offers practical solutions using design principles drawn from the observation of natural systems. From individual homes to entire bio-regions, Permaculture has the potential to repair damaged landscapes, build capacity in communities and replace apathy with self empowerment.”Permaculture, when practiced, is a design philosophy and set of tools and principles that encompass the inter-related fields of organic gardening and agroforestry, architecture, ecology, community design, renewable energy, and systems theory.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Permaculture sounds like organic farming, how are they related?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1070926",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How are organic farming and agroecology related?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "Does organic farming reduce global warming, and if so, how?",
"passage": "Organic farmers are also careful about how they store and compost animal wastes, in order to safeguard air and water systems. They tailor their crops according to climate and soil, to optimise the natural growth cycle. Organic farmers also promote biodiversity, by growing a variety of crops, rather than one single crop. Through all of these methods, organic farmers prevent soil erosion, conserve energy, and help protect local wildlife, stream banks and watersheds. They help protect the global environment, as well: organic farming can greatly reduce the amount of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide, that contribute to global warming. Click here to read a global report on The Role of Organic Agriculture in Mitigating Climate Change.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Does organic farming reduce global warming, and if so, how?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2152985",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Does organic farming reduce global warming, and if so, how?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 109,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "Why do cats eat plastic?",
"passage": "\"The persistence of pica in the seeming absence of a physiological cause might be due to the fortuitous acquisition of a conditioned illness during the period of physiological insult.\" Cats also display pica behavior in their natural environments and there is evidence to support that this behavior has a psychological aspect to it. Some breeds (such as the Siamese cat) are more predisposed to showing this type of behavior than other breeds, but several types of breeds have been documented to show pica. Cats have been observed to start by chewing and sucking on non-nutritive substances like wool, cotton, rubber, plastic and even cardboard and then progress into ingestion of these substances. This type of behavior occurs through the first four years of a cat's life but it is primarily observed during the first two months of life when cats are introduced into new homes is most common. Theories explaining why this behavior becomes active during this time suggest that early weaning and stress as a consequence of separation from the mother and litter-mates and exposure to a new environment are to blame.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why do cats eat plastic?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_14083964",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why do cats eat plastic?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Will it kill him?",
"passage": "This stress can be passed on to puppies and kittens affecting their disposition, personality and behavior. Premature weaning stresses the developing immune system. Moreover, the time they spend away from their mother while in the puppy mill, subjected to the same stressful living conditions, is highly stressful. But that’s not the end of their stress. Shipping to pet stores puts them through a great deal of stress.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Will eating plastic kill a cat?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1982773",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Will pica kill a cat?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "What? No. Will eating plastic kill my cat?",
"passage": "Any object may be a potential target, however. Why is Pica Dangerous? Other than its destructive potential, pica can be extremely hazardous to your cat's health if non-food items are consumed. Ingested fabric, string, or other materials can lodge in your cat's stomach or intestine. The blockage prevents the passage of food and may cut off the blood supply to these organs. Both are life-threatening conditions. Cat's that chew on power cords may be electrocuted. Additionally, many common houseplants are toxic to cats; chewing or eating these plants can cause a wide range of symptoms from drooling to death. If your cat has a history of ingesting non-food items and becomes lethargic, vomits, or displays other concerning behavior, take them to your veterinarian immediately. Why Does My Cat Eat/Chew on Non-food Items? No one knows exactly why some cats exhibit pica behavior. Because pica has been associated with a variety of diseases including feline leukemia and feline immunodeficiency virus, a veterinarian should examine any cat with pica.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What? No. Will eating plastic kill my cat?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1898529",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Will eating plastic kill my cat?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "How do I get him to stop?",
"passage": "If there has been a change in your life recently — moving to a different house, a new schedule, new roommate, outdoor construction — your cat might be acting out because of anxiety. Begin by addressing the cause of the stress (do a web search for \"\"stressed cat\"\" and you’ll find lots of advice on how to do that) and spending time with your cat to help her adapt. Ease the Boredom Feline pica is also pretty common in bored or lonely cats. You can ease a cat’s boredom by providing environmental enrichment. Give him puzzle toys including things such as rolling treat balls to keep him busy while you’re away at work.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How do I get a cat to stop eating plastic?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2689809",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do I get my cat to stop eating non-food items?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Should I get a second one?",
"passage": "\"Introducing a Second Cat or Pet Before bringing a new pet into your heart and home, ask yourself, \"\"Why do I want another pet?\"\" Two pets are not necessarily just as easy or just as much work as one. Another pet will require time, energy, expense and patience. Many people who do not have enough time for one pet think that two will be better because they will keep each other company. If you think a second pet will help alleviate loneliness, boredom or behavior problems with your resident pet, think again. If you don't have time to spend with one cat, you surely will not have time to spend with two. Many cat owners end up with two bored and misbehaving pets instead of one. Furthermore, a second pet will not necessarily provide your cat with the companionship you have in mind. If you are willing to put in the time, patience and expense of a second pet, then take a look at your cat's desires.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Should I get a second cat to ease my cat’s boredom or loneliness?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1002037",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Should I get a second cat with pica behavior?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "What are his desires?",
"passage": "It helps your cat feel secure in their environment and around people as they are left alone often during the day. Hiding - Little Mo loves to play hiding games with her self where I think she is imaging that she is hiding from prey or another cat and loves to pounce out of the box at the most unexpected moment. Provide old cardboard boxes around the house with a few toys inside for added fun. Catnip - Many cats love catnip, it relaxes them and they seem to really go crazy for it. Toys can be bought with catnip inside or you could even provide your indoor cat with their own little tray of fresh growing catnip for them to chew on. Cat videos - Many cats like the sound of human voices being around during the day, it may help them to feel secure. You could leave a radio on for them, or for a bit more variety of sounds and visual stimulus, you could buy them specially designedcat videos to leave on during the day.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are my cat’s desires?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2024328",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are your cat's desires?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "What does the slow blink mean?",
"passage": "Why Does My Cat Slow Blink At Me? February 21, 2017 By Crazy Cat Lady Mar 0 Comments Did you ever try to have a staring contest with your cat only to have them blink slowly at you and then avert their eye? It is a very curious sort of behavior with a definite meaning. Directly staring at your cat can be interpreted as an aggressive behavior. This is because cats use this stare in the wild to threaten or challenge. Cats that have a friendly relationship will rarely look each other in the eyes. If they do, then they typically blink and then look away. This is their way of saying there is no threat and the relationship is one of friendship and peace. When a cat does the same to their owner it is their way of saying I do not perceive you as a threat but am comfortable with our relationship. It can also be a means of asking for further interaction. When your cat does the slow blink see if they are asking for more.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What does a cat’s slow blink mean?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2367369",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What does the slow blink mean for cats?"
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]
},
{
"number": 110,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "What are the benefits of cow milk?",
"passage": "Cow milk seems to be everywhere and is often taken for granted, but it has many important health benefits, including its ability to aid in weight loss, build strong bones and teeth, boost the immune system, reduce fat, protect the heart, prevent diabetes, eliminate inflammation, and help stimulate growth. Cow Milk No matter where you are on the planet, you’ve almost certainly come across cow milk. In most parts of the world, it is the primary [ 1] animal milk consumed by humans, although goat, sheep, and even camel milk are popular based on the availability of animals. Cow milk (derived from bovines) is intended for sucking by young cows, just as human infants are often nursed with human breast milk. However, the nutritional value and availability of cow’s milk have made it one of the most in-demand liquids on the planet. More than 6 billion people on the planet drink milk on a semi-regular basis, which means that these animals are an incredibly important part of our global nutritional needs.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the benefits of cow milk?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1917132",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the benefits of cow milk?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What about an alternative. I’ve heard it's also made from almonds?",
"passage": "Commercially available almond milk is often enriched with vitamins A and D, as well as calcium, to make it seem more like regular milk. (Almonds provide some calcium, but not as much as cow’s milk.) Almond milk is low in calories compared to other milk substitutes and contains some heart-healthy monounsaturated fat. Be sure to check the labels of almond milk before you buy, because some brands contain preservatives, and other additives. Note that you can make almond milk at home – an easy process, requiring only organic raw almonds, water and a little sugar or other sweetener. You can find many recipes online. You might also try oat, hemp or rice milk. Oat milk provides more fiber than other milk substitutes and was shown in a Swedish study to help lower LDL (“bad”) cholesterol and total cholesterol. Hemp milk, made by pulverizing the seeds, blending them with water and straining out the solid residue, provides both omega-6 and omega-3 essential fatty acids in a healthy three-to-one ratio. Utterance type: Question",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What about an alternative. How is milk made from almonds?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3129148",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I’ve heard cow milk is also made from almonds?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Which is healthiest?",
"passage": "Why Whole Milk is the Healthiest Choicetweet email 227By: Experience Life August 31, 2009About Experience Life Follow Experience Life at @ Experience Life I drink whole milk and eat full-fat yogurt, cream cheese, and sour cream. Sure, full-fat dairy products taste better than the skim/fat-free versions, but I don’t eat them for the taste. I eat full-fat dairy because it’s better for my health and my weight. Yep, you heard me right: I eat dairy products with all the fat god gave ‘em, and I do it because it’s good for me. Here’s why:1. Our bodies cannot digest the protein or absorb the calcium from milk without the fat. Love This? Never Miss Another Story.2. Vitamins A and D are also fat-soluble. So you can’t absorb them from milk when all the fat has been skimmed off. (This makes fortified skim milk the biggest sham of all — you can pump fat-free milk full of a year’s supply of vitamins A and D, but the body can’t access them).3.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which of the milk options (almond, oat, hemp or rice milk) is the healthiest?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2585558",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which milk is healthiest?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "No, the vegan ones. Which of those alternatives is healthiest?",
"passage": "There are a ton of nondairy milks to choose from, but which one is the healthiest?»RELATED: Milk in the fridge? Someone may owe you money To find out, researchers from Mc Gill University recently conducted an experiment, published in the Journal of Food Science and Technology, to determine the nutritional value of plant-based milk beverages. To do so, they compared the health benefits of the four most popular alternative milks, including soy, almond, coconut and rice. They examined the number of calories and amount of protein, fat and carbohydrates found in each. They also looked into the vitamins and minerals the substitutes contained. While they said cow’s milk still has the most nutritional value, with 8 grams of protein, 9 grams of fat and 11.5 grams of carbs, soy is the most comparable for overall balance. It’s “a clear winner,” they wrote in a statement. It has more protein than all the other milk options analyzed, with 7 to 12 grams and 95 calories a glass.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, the vegan ones. Which of the vegan alternative milk options is healthiest?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3333546",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which of the vegan alternatives is healthiest?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Can I make it at home?",
"passage": "Soy milk maker A soy milk maker is a small kitchen appliance which automatically cooks soy milk, a non-dairy beverage made from soy beans. Soy milk makers work similarly to a combination between a home blender and an automatic coffee maker. Some soy milk makers can also be programmed to make almond milk, rice milk, and other vegetable-based steeped beverages. Homemade soy milk can be made to the drinkers' tastes and nutritional requirements, providing added value. Soy pulp, a by-product of soy milk preparation, can be used as an ingredient in many recipes and food products. Ordinary methods for making soy milk at home are often very labor-intensive (requiring beans to be soaked, ground in a blender, strained, and then cooked). Soy milk machines perform many of these steps automatically, greatly simplifying home-based soy milk production. Section::::Standard operation. Before use, dried beans are rinsed with water to remove particulate debris, soaked for 6–10 hours to moisten and soften the dried beans, and then rinsed again before use.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Can I make soy milk at home?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_1888447",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can I make soy milk at home?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Oat seems popular now. Why?",
"passage": "Oat milk Oat milk is a type of plant milk derived from whole oat (\"Avena spp.\") grains by soaking the plant material to extract its nutrients. Oat milk naturally has a creamy texture and a characteristically oatmeal-like flavor, though it is sold commercially in various flavor-varieties such as sweetened, unsweetened, vanilla, and chocolate. Unlike other plant milks, whose origins date as early as the 13th century, oat milk is a modern creation, developed by the Swedish scientist Rickard Oste in the early 1990s. Oats contain high amounts of functional protein, dietary fiber (β-glucan), and unsaturated fatty acids, which make oat milk a significant source of nutrients, though uncertainty surrounds its practical use as a dairy milk substitute. Regardless, oat milk is often consumed to replace dairy milk in vegan diets, or in the cases of medical conditions where dairy is incompatible, such as lactose intolerance or a cow's milk allergy (CMA). Section::::History. Section::::History.:Creation. Soy milk predates all other alternative milks, including oat milk, both as a cultural and commercial product.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Oat seems popular now. Why?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_6447281",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why does oat seem popular now?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "I’m going to bake some cookies. Which one would be the best to use?",
"passage": "One cup of soy milk provides 4 grams of unsaturated fat, 1 gram of fiber, and 7 grams of protein. Soymilk has 75% more antioxidants than cow’s milk. It is hearty, rich and creamy. Soy milk is good for drinking straight from the glass, poured over cereal or in coffee. The taste is nutty and slightly sweet. When it comes to cooking, soy milk is one of the best milks to choose. It can be used in place of cow’s milk in any recipe. It is stable at high temperatures which makes it a good choice for savory dishes and sauces. In baking, soy milk is also one of the best choices because of its high protein content. According to veganbaking.net curdling milk with an acid such as vinegar creates complex flavors and thickens the mixture. This in turn “increases leavening power and enhances the crumb quality of cakes and muffins.” Since curdling is dependent on protein content, soy milk does the best job. That means that soy milk is also the best choice when making vegan buttermilk for Vegan Buttermilk Biscuits or for dredging to make breaded dishes like “Chicken-Fried” Tofu Steaks.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’m going to bake some cookies. Which vegan milk is best for baking cookies?",
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"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which one would be the best to use for my cookies?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "What would be second best?",
"passage": "The next time I'm in a pinch and soy or hemp milk can't be found I'll turn to almond milk as a third alternative and if I can't find this I'll go on the lookout for coconut milk, followed by rice milk. I'm aware that over use of soy in food products may be a health concern to many readers as of this writing due to some health studies that have been published. In vegan baking we're using so little of it that if you're concerned about it you really shouldn't be eating baked items in the first place because the sugar and glycemic index issues are a much more serious health issue. Remember that most things in moderation are ok. If you're still concerned or allergic to soy then it's great that we now have hemp milk as a soy-free alternative. Its wonderful to finally be in an age where we have so many alternatives to dairy milk to choose from.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which vegan milk besides soy is best for baking?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1970617",
"passage_id": 12,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What would be second best for vegan buttermilk?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "What is the best in my morning latte?",
"passage": "Hemp milk Hemp milk, or hemp seed milk, is a plant milk made from hemp seeds that are soaked and ground in water. The result resembles milk in color, texture, and flavor. Hemp is conducive to being organically grown and labeled. Plain hemp milk may be additionally sweetened or flavored. Section::::Production. Production of hemp milk requires hemp seeds, water, and a blender. Many recipes call for ground vanilla or vanilla extract to add flavor, and a type of sweetener. Once all the ingredients are blended together, some people pour the hemp milk through a cheesecloth and strainer to get a smoother and more refined milky texture, but this process is optional. Section::::Use in coffee. Compared to soy milk, in coffee culture, hemp milk is said to produce better latte art and to have a texture more like cow's milk. Section::::Nutrition. In a serving, hemp milk provides 46 calories from 3 g of carbohydrates, 3 g of fat and 2 g of protein. Hemp milk contains no micronutrients in significant amounts.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What vegan milk is best in my morning latte?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_21873780",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the best in my morning latte?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "I didn’t expect that. Really, hemp? Say more.",
"passage": "Thanks for the article… I’m going to email it to all of them now. JOhn What are the possible side effects? Thomas Kubica I personally prefer the taste of organic milk, just the regular dairy found at the stores. But whenever I’m making a smoothie or milkshake, I like to add hemp milk. I also like to add flaxseed oil to the shakes as well. I would recommend everybody try a sip of hemp milk at least once. It really does have many benefits. Chad We keep a carton of hemp milk in the fridge at my office. My coworkers and I use it as creamer for our coffee. It tastes alot like ‘Hazelnut’ flavor, but is much healthier for us.nice post. I’m emailing it to my coworkers now.. thanks Mariothat’s weird… I also like to use hemp milk as a creamer for my coffee. I’ve never heard of anybody else doing that. The only thing about hemp milk that I don’t like, is that fact that it settles quite a bit.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I didn’t expect that. Really, hemp? Say more about hemp milk for coffee.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1344199",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I didn’t expect hemp milk to contain any micronutrients in significant amounts. Really, hemp? Say more."
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},
{
"number": 111,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I saw a Tesla Roadster today which made me wonder, what is the world’s fastest car?",
"passage": "Click here to visit our frequently asked questions about HTML5 video.0:00 / 2:112. Hennessey Venom GT (270.49mph)The Hennessey Venom GT is first in our list, with a verified speed of 270.49mph. The cars comes with a 1,244-hp 7.0-liter twin-turbocharged V8 engine giving it enough power to go at such high speeds. However, when it comes to Guinness World records Venom GT is still not considered as the fastest car in the world. The Guinness World record for the fastest car is held by the Bugatti Veyron Super Sport (second car in our list) at 269.86mph. The Venom GT reached the speed of 270.49mph at the Kennedy Space Center in a one-way run (NASA didn’t allow running in the opposite direction). To break the Guinness World Record, it is compulsory to run in both directions to compensate for the wind conditions, so the Veyron Super Sport kept its title of fastest car in the world.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I saw a Tesla Roadster today which made me wonder, what is the world’s fastest car?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D570051",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the world’s fastest car?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What is the first based on?",
"passage": "Section::::Specifications.:Chassis. The Venom GT utilizes a heavily modified Lotus Elise/Exige chassis. The manufacturer states that the modified chassis uses components from the Lotus Exige, including the roof, doors, side glass, windscreen, cockpit, floorpan, HVAC system, wiper and head lamps, though the manufacturer is not associated with Lotus Cars. For road use, the car is registered as a Lotus Exige (modified) and is not a series production car. The Venom GT has a curb weight of aided by carbon fiber bodywork and carbon fiber wheels. The brakes have Brembo 6-piston calipers at the front and 4-piston calipers at the rear. The rotors are carbon ceramic units provided by Surface Transforms. Section::::Specifications.:Drivetrain. The Venom GT is powered by a twin-turbocharged GM LSX V8 engine. The LSX architecture incorporates specific design features such as reinforced internal components and additional head bolts with aluminum heads including twin Precision dual ball bearing turbochargers. The engine has a power output of at 6,600 rpm and of torque at 4,400 rpm.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is Hennessey Venom GT based on?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_25324695",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the first car based on?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How fast can the unmodified base car go?",
"passage": "This was a great way to validate the technical excellence of our car which includes high-speed stability with an open roof.”The Venom GT is powered by a twin-turbo 7.0L V8 engine producing 1,451 bhp @ 7,200 rpm and 1,287 lb-ft of torque @ 4,200 rpm and puts its power down to the rear Michelin Pilot Super Sport tires via a 6-speed manual gearbox by Ricardo. The Venom GT is capable of 0-60 mph in less than 2.4 seconds and has been tested from 0-200 mph in less than 13 seconds. Hennessey plans to offer a limited run of 3 “World Record Edition” Venom GT Spyder’s to commemorate the record run and as a tribute to the company’s 25 th Anniversary. The cost is $1.3 million each plus tax.“We are grateful to have the help of so many friends, family, employees, customers and partners over the past 25 years. We look forward to the next chapter of the Venom with the F5 as we keep making fast cars faster for the next 25 years”, said John Hennessey.###",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How fast can the unmodified base Lotus Elise/Exige go?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D973346",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How fast can the unmodified base car of Hennessey Venom GT go?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "No, I meant the Lotus.",
"passage": "Power to weight ratio: 307 hp/tonne (311 PS/1000kg). Lotus Exige Sport 380 (2016–Present) [ edit]Lotus Exige Sport 380The Lotus Exige Sport 380 is a track focused and more powerful version of the Lotus Exige lineup. It was unveiled on 23 November 2016. Lotus' CEO, Jean-Marc Gales describes it as, \"\"The Exige Sport 380 is so good, that it is no longer the best in class, it’s now in a class of its own\"\", and it fulfills this statement by taking on some of the powerful and expensive super cars both on the track and the streets. The 3.5-litre, super-charged V6 engine is now uprated and produces 375 hp (380 PS; 280 k W) and 410 N⋅m (302 lb⋅ft) of torque with a 6500 rpm red line achieved by revised supercharger and ECU. It can sprint from 0 to 60 mph (97 km/h) in 3.5 seconds and has a top speed of 178 mph (286 km/h).",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How fast can the Lotus Elise/Exige go?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2422138",
"passage_id": 22,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant the Lotus."
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Can any go over 300 mph?",
"passage": "Instead, it is a head to head race between two cars on a short 402 m (¼ mile), straight track. There are five professional classes of dragsters. They are top fuel dragster, top fuel funny car, pro modified, pro stock, and pro stock bike. Of these, top fuel and funny cars are the most popular. Top fuel dragsters are the fastest class of dragsters, capable of reaching speeds of up to 150 m/s. Funny cars are basically top fuel dragsters with a body over the chassis. As a result, funny cars are usually slower than top fuelers. Top fuel dragsters frequently reach speeds of 134 m/s (300 mph) during their runs. The current speed record for any dragster is 150.27 m/s (336.15 mph) by a top fuel dragster on a run by Tony Schumacher on May 5, 2005. Class E. T. Speed Date Driver/Car Location TF 4.437 10/01/05 Tony Shumacher - Long Grove, Il/'04 R. E. D. Hadman Joliet, Il TF 336.15 05/25/05 Tony Shumacher - Long Grove, Il/'05 Hadman R.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Can any super car go over 300 mph?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1488311",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can the Venom GT go over 300 mph?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "What is the origin of funny cars? Why do they call them that?",
"passage": "Hot Rod News Comparing Vintage and Modern Funny Cars Written by Brandan Gillogly on February 13, 2016Elana Scherr - writer; Wes Allison - photographer;View All 78 Photos The first Funny Cars showed up in the mid 1960s, how have they changed in the last half century? Race cars develop in fits and spurts. Only rarely can an innovation be traced back to one specific person, although often it’s whoever first won with a new idea that gets credit for it. The modern Funny Car, that nitro-burning, carbon fiber shell set a-trembling over a front engine tube chassis has its roots in the A/FX classes running in 1964 and 1965. Jack Chrisman’s nitro-burning Comet in 1964 showed the crowd-pleasing abilities of a Top Fuel dragster in a dealer showroom suit. The name is rumored to have come from the altered wheelbase bodies that followed in 1965. They looked “funny.” The first flip-top car bodies over dragster chassis showed up in 1966, and that seems to be where the NHRA is marking its 50th anniversary date for the birth of the Funny Car.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the origin of funny cars? Why do they call them funny cars?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D239416",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the origin of funny cars? Why do people call them that?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "How fast did it go?",
"passage": "The upgraded system also improved the maximum torque from and improves the Roadster's quarter mile times. Section::::Specifications.:Transmission.:Gear selector. In the interior the gear selector is similar to a push-button automatic with buttons labeled P, R, N and D while some earlier models have a gear lever similar to that in cars with manual transmission. Section::::Specifications.:Performance. The Roadster's acceleration time is 3.9 seconds for the Standard model and 3.7 seconds for the 2010 V2.5 Sport, which \"Motor Trend\" confirmed in the first independent, instrumented testing the Sport. The magazine also recorded a time of 12.6 seconds at . Tesla said the top speed is electronically limited to . Tesla claims it has a weight of , a and a . Tesla began delivering the higher performance version of the Roadster in July 2009. The Roadster Sport has adjustable dampers and a new hand-wound motor, capable of in 3.7 seconds. Scotty Pollacheck, a high-performance driver for Killacycle, drove a 2010 Tesla Roadster Sport at the Wayland Invitational Drag Race in Portland, Oregon, in July 2009.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How fast did the first funny car go?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_5760445",
"passage_id": 20,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How fast did the Tesla Roadster go in 1966?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "No, I meant the funny car. But, that’s interesting. I heard it has a ludicrous mode. How does its quickness compare to the Venom?",
"passage": "“Over fifty years ago the American-built P51 Mustang fighter aircraft was flown into history powered by a British Rolls-Royce Merlin engine. Today the Hennessey Venom GT promises to set a new standard of power to weight ratio in the rarified air of today’s supercar market.”With such a light-weight body and astronomical horsepower, the Hennessey Venom GT can sprint from 0 – 60 in just 2.2 seconds with a top speed of 262 mph on a six-speed manual transmission. Compared to the Bugatti Veyron, which has an acceleration speed from 0 – 60 mph in 2.6 seconds with a top speed of 253 mph, the Hennessey Venom GT may be the “Veyron-killer”. To stop this venomous beast, Brembo brakes with 6-piston calipers are added in front and 4-piston calipers in the rear to give enough clamping power on the massive 15-inch carbon ceramic rotors. Hennessey plans on building 10 units of the Venom GT yearly. Four Hennessey Venom GT’s have already been sold at about $600,000 each in this year.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant the funny car. But, that’s interesting. I heard it has ludicrous mode. How does the Tesla Roadster Sport’s quickness compare to the Hennessey Venom GT?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D769103",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How does the Tesla Roadster Sport's quickness compare to the Venom?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "It sounds like the Tesla is very competitive. What makes its engine unique compared with gas ones?",
"passage": "\"Tesla Roadster Motor and Other Features Prev NEXTThe Roadster motor. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The Roadster has just three gears. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The Roaster cockpit. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The heart of the Tesla Roadster is its 3-phase, 4-pole electric induction motor, which weighs just 70 pounds. Tesla's claims and independent testing show that the Roadster can reach 60 mph in about four seconds and its speed will top out somewhere around 130 mph. But the Roadster's performance isn't just about speed and acceleration. The unique properties of an electric motor give it a huge advantage over a combustion engine in terms of torque, force that tends to rotate or turn things, and power band, the range of operating speeds under which the engine operates efficiently. The Roadster can generate large amounts of torque even at very low RPM, and the motor can always turn out major horsepower. It can reach over 13,000 RPM, something very few large combustion engines can do.”",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "It sounds like the Tesla is very competitive. What makes its electric engine unique compared with gas ones?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2023665",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What makes the Tesla Roadster engine unique compared with gas ones?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "I heard they’ve been working on something even faster.",
"passage": "The Roadster with Maximum Plaid Mode — a nod to a line from the Mel Brooks movie, Spaceballs — cuts that to 1.9 seconds and secures the crown. It will hit 100 in 4.2 seconds and top out “above 250 mph,” according to Musk. For gearheads, he noted the three-motor Roadster will turn out an unprecedented 7,376 pound-feet of torque, more than a diesel 18-wheeler, and 10 times what even some of the world’s most powerful gas sports cars can manage. Meanwhile, the Roadster will have a range of 620 miles of highway driving, Musk added, noting, “You’ll be able to travel from Los Angeles to San Francisco and back without charging.”The Tesla Roadster will hit 100 miles per hour in 4.2 seconds and top out \"\"above 250 mph,\"\" according to CEO Elon Musk. Tesla Good news in a bad week The timing of the two announcements couldn’t come at a better time for Tesla, the company being socked with a series of setbacks in recent weeks.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’ve heard Tesla’s been working on a new car that is faster than ludicrous mode.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D385540",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I heard Tesla have been working on something even faster."
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "Is the Roadster related to the other super cars we’ve talked about?",
"passage": "\"Tesla Roadster Motor and Other Features Prev NEXTThe Roadster motor. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The Roadster has just three gears. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The Roaster cockpit. Image © 2006 Tesla Motors, Inc. All rights reserved. The heart of the Tesla Roadster is its 3-phase, 4-pole electric induction motor, which weighs just 70 pounds. Tesla's claims and independent testing show that the Roadster can reach 60 mph in about four seconds and its speed will top out somewhere around 130 mph. But the Roadster's performance isn't just about speed and acceleration. The unique properties of an electric motor give it a huge advantage over a combustion engine in terms of torque, force that tends to rotate or turn things, and power band, the range of operating speeds under which the engine operates efficiently. The Roadster can generate large amounts of torque even at very low RPM, and the motor can always turn out major horsepower. It can reach over 13,000 RPM, something very few large combustion engines can do.”",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Is the Tesla Roadster related to the other super cars, like the Hennessey Venom GT or Lotus Elise?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2023665",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Is the Tesla Roadster related to the other super cars we’ve talked about besides the Venom GT?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 112,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "What’s the history of steroid use in sports in the US?",
"passage": "Over the years, the popularity of steroids has varied, but in 2001, it was found that about 2% of high school students used steroids in the past year. History The history of anabolic steroids can be traced back to as early as 1930's, before the term steroid was even used. In the 1930's, a team of scientists was able to create a synthetic form of testosterone (a male hormone) to help treat men who were unable to produce enough of the hormone for normal growth, development, and sexual functioning. Later, during World War II it was found that this artificial form of testosterone could be used to help malnourished soldiers gain weight and improve performance. After the war, athletes began to use steroids to enhance their performance in competitions. In the 1956 Olympics, Soviet athletes, especially wrestlers, performed at exceptionally high levels. After learning that those athletes were using testosterone, an American physician (Dr. Zeigler) created a more selective form of what we know as anabolic steroids.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Utterance: What’s the history of steroid use in sports in the US?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D86023",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What’s the history of steroid use in sports in the US?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What were Ziegler’s improvements?",
"passage": "John Bosley Ziegler John Bosley Ziegler (\"ca.\" 1920–1983) — known as John Ziegler and Montana Jack — was the American physician who originally developed the anabolic steroid Methandrostenolone (Dianabol, DBOL) which was released in the USA in 1958 by Ciba. He pioneered its athletic use as an aid to muscle growth by bodybuilders, administering it to U.S. weightlifting champion Bill March of the York Barbell club in 1959 when he was the physician to the U.S. Weightlifting team. It was banned by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the Controlled Substances Act. In later life he was outspoken against its use in sport, saying \"It is bad enough to have to deal with drug addicts, but now healthy athletes are putting themselves in the same category. It's a disgrace. Who plays sports for fun anymore?\". Ziegler suffered from heart disease, which he partially ascribed to his experimentation with steroids, and he died from heart failure in 1983. Section::::Biography. Section::::Biography.:Early life. Ziegler was born in the Midwestern United States but he returned to his family roots in southern Pennsylvania and graduated from Gettysburg College in 1942.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Utterance: What were Ziegler’s improvements to the use of anabolic steroids in athletes?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_18845973",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What were Ziegler’s improvements?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Why are they banned?",
"passage": "The excessive use of steroids by athletes to further improve their athletic capabilities has indeed caught the attention of many people all around the entire world. With this attention, a few controversies arose, and these controversies lead to steroids being banned in some countries all over the world. One of the main arguments against the use of steroids is the idea of them being unfair when it comes to other athletes who do not use it. Besides this, there are also issues regarding the negative effects that it has on the body as well as some unfortunate crime of violence that was also attributed to the use of the drug. When Was it Banned in the US? Everything started after the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul where the sprinter and steroid user Ben Johnson achieved his controversial victory. Following this event, the US Congress decided to place anabolic steroids under the list of Controlled Substances. Within no time, the drug was included among the other drugs under the Controlled Substances Act.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why are steroids banned in sports?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1920487",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why are steroid use banned in the US?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "Are there visible signs?",
"passage": "Warning Signs Of Steroid Use The possible red flags of anabolic steroid use include: Increased acne and facial bloating Enlarged breasts in boys or smaller breasts in girls Persistent bad breath Skin eruptions and infections Increased aggression or irritability Hair loss in bed, shower, comb, or brush Small red or purplish acne Depression, hallucinations, extreme feelings of mistrust or fear Drastic appetite shifts Loss or gain of interest in friends and decline in grades Unexplained presence or recovery of needles, vials, alcohol swabs, rubber tops and stoppers, syringes, amp openers, sterile injectable oils, waters, or vitamins Phone conversations becoming more private Changes in body build, including development of the upper body, muscle growth, and rapid weight gain Behavioral, emotional, or psychological changes Needle marks in the buttocks or thighs Effects On Mind Many studies have suggested that testosterone and anabolic steroids affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). It has also been revealed that many people who administer excessively high doses of anabolic steroids tend to experience mood, sexuality, and aggression changes during or after the use of these drugs, though these effects may be rapid or involve long-term modifications at the genomic level.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Are there visible signs that someone is using steroids?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1147838",
"passage_id": 8,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Are there visible signs of anabolic steroids being banned in the US?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "That sounds easy to spot. How do they get away with it?",
"passage": "Rodchenkov combined three steroids and dissolved that mixture into liquor — Chivas whiskey for men, Martini vermouth for women — in order to speed up absorption and shorten the detection window. “The athletes were instructed to swish the liquid around in their mouths, under the tongue, to absorb the drugs,” the Times writes. Even with this subterfuge, WADA found that Russia had the highest number of athletes who were caught doping in 2014. Rodchenkov blamed that on athletes who took drugs that he had not approved. — At the Sochi Olympics, Rodchenkov spearheaded a clandestine, late-night effort to swap out Russian athletes’ dirty urine with clean urine provided months earlier, before the athletes began doping. With the assistance of Russian intelligence officers — who, the Times alleges, were able to develop a replacement for the tamper-proof caps used on the specimen bottles — Rodchenkov would exchange dirty urine samples with athletes’ clean samples provided by a colleague, who was stationed in what nominally was a storage closet next door. The urine samples were passed back and forth through a hole that had been cut into the wall near the floor.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That sounds easy to spot. How do athletes get away with using steroids?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_5b081c3fd209cd8407fec3158c161b07",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do athletes get away with anabolic steroids?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "What is the NFL policy?",
"passage": "The Baltimore Ravens defense will be without tackle Haloti Ngata for the rest of the regular season after he was suspended for four games by the NFL for violating the performance-enhancing drugs policy. Ngata, in a statement released by the Ravens, said he used Adderall. “I made a mistake, and I own this,” he said. “I took Adderall and take full responsibility for doing this. I am deeply sorry and broken up over this. I let down my family, my teammates Ravens fans and myself. My hope is that the Ravens make the playoffs and I believe they can do this. And then I can come back and help us win.” Adderall, an amphetamine most often prescribed for attention-deficit disorders, is banned by the NFL, Major League Baseball, the NBA, Major League Soccer, the NCAA and the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency. “This is disappointing news for the Ravens,” Ozzie Newsome, the team’s general manager and executive vice president, said in a statement. “We are disappointed In Haloti, but no more than he is with himself.” Ngata will be eligible to return Dec.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the NFL policy about steroids?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_LA45TJ7E3RERJK5ZU57Z36ZVP4",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the NFL policy regarding steroid use?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Isn’t that speed?",
"passage": "Denver Broncos wide receiver has been suspended for four games by the NFL over violations of its performance-enhancing drugs policy, and he’s not at all happy about it. In an e-mail sent to the Denver Post, Welker seemingly takes aim at the league’s drug-testing policy. The league is only saying that Welker tested positive for amphetamine. A source told the Denver Post’s Mike Klis that the amphetamine in question was adderall, not MDMA (aka Molly) as was speculated by some on Tuesday. As Deadspin points out, MDMA is indeed an amphetamine, but it falls under the league’s recreational-drug policy, not its performance-enhancing drug policy, so it’s seemingly not the drug in question here. Last September, the Denver Post wrote about how the NFL deals with adderall, a commonly prescribed drug that treats attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but one that also causes feelings of exhilaration, increased energy and mental alertness when used in a non-prescribed manner. It is classified as a performance-enhancing drug and a drug of abuse by the NFL.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Is Adderall Speed?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_7c61ea077f2b2fc2fb98547f58be69c9",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Isn’t that speed with which the Ravens are without Haloti Ngata?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "What is the difference between the two policies?",
"passage": "Updated with details, Miller statement Von Miller, the Denver Broncos’ linebacker, is facing a four-game suspension from the NFL for violating league policy, according to multiple reports. Miller, defensive rookie of the year in 2011, is presently appealing the discipline, according to ESPN. The Denver Post reports that Miller tested positive for amphetamines and marijuana during his rookie season. Under NFL policy, a positive test for a recreational drug lands a player in a program, and a second triggers a four-game suspension. Testing positive for a performance-enhancing drug results in immediate suspension. Miller issued a denial on Twitter, saying: The NFL Players Association was not pleased that the information leaked out and George Atallah, the NFLPA’s assistant executive director of external affairs, tweeted today: If Miller fails to win on appeal, the Broncos would open the season against the Baltimore Ravens without two of their key defensive players. Elvis Dumervil was released during the offseason and signed with the Ravens, who will play the season opener Sept. Utterance type: Question",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the difference between the NFL’s recreational drug and performance enhancing drug policies?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_9e2be3bf292327ecd9dc9184d6041481",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the difference between the NFL and its performance-enhancing drug policy?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "I heard it even affects card players. Didn't bridge also have a problem?",
"passage": "Contract bridge Contract bridge, or simply bridge, is a trick-taking card game using a standard 52-card deck. In its basic format, it is played by four players in two competing partnerships, with partners sitting opposite each other around a table. Millions of people play bridge worldwide in clubs, tournaments, online and with friends at home, making it one of the world's most popular card games, particularly among seniors. The World Bridge Federation (WBF) is the governing body for international competitive bridge, with numerous other bodies governing bridge at the regional level. The game consists of several , each progressing through four phases. The cards are dealt to the players, and then the players ‘’call’’ (or ‘’bid’’) in an auction to take the , specifying how many tricks the partnership receiving the contract (the declaring side) needs to take to receive points for the deal. During the auction, partners communicate information about their hand, including its overall strength and the length of its suits, although conventions for use during play also exist.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I heard it even affects card players. Didn't the game of bridge also have a problem with drug use?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_3995",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Didn't bridge also have a problem with card players?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "I know what bridge is. I heard there was a drug scandal recently.",
"passage": "There are sports in which you have come to expect a certain amount of doping. Cycling, for instance: so much doping. Weightlifting. Any Winter Olympic sport that involved Russians who competed at the 2014 Sochi Games. Just pick one. If you believe the International Olympic Committee, they doped like there would be no doping tomorrow. And then there are sports (games? pastimes?) that would seem immune to doping because why bother? At the top of that list is bridge, which last we checked is a card game played while seated. But you would be wrong thinking that because the world’s top-ranked bridge player just got himself suspended for doping. As announced Thursday by the World Bridge Federation, Geir Helgemo was suspended for one year after he tested positive for synthetic testosterone and Clomiphene, a fertility drug that accelerates testosterone production in men, after September’s World Bridge Series in Orlando. The WBF said Helgemo — a Norwegian-born player who now competes for Monaco — admitted to doping and accepted his suspension, which ends Nov.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I know what bridge is. I heard there was a drug scandal in bridge recently.",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_HFUUCXJW5ZFTDFYXKAJ2FLWIZA",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I heard there was a drug scandal recently in the NFL."
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "Does the article have more about it?",
"passage": "20. Because the WBF is recognized by the International Olympic Committee, it must follow the IOC’s anti-doping policies, hence the drug testing after major competitions. The sedentary world of top-level bridge has somehow been on the World Anti-Doping Agency’s radar for years. WADA’s 2016 summary of that year’s drug-test results found that 22 percent of the doping tests done on bridge players came back positive, up from 3.6 percent in 2014. Most of the 2016 positives were for “diuretics and other masking agents,” though one was for “anabolic agents.” “Bridge is played in tournaments two or three weeks long,” Jaap Stomphorst, a physician and doping expert who works with the WBF, told the Independent in 2015. “People tend to get tired, so a stimulant can keep you awake during play.” Read more from The Post: Islanders fans welcome John Tavares back to Long Island will all of their middle fingers raised L.A. Clippers announcers apologize for mocking ex-NBA player who died in 2011 For Bryce Harper, this wasn’t the way it was supposed to go, but it just might work Jason Witten returning to Cowboys after stumbling in ESPN’s broadcast booth Johnny Manziel and AAF hold talks as he mulls tryout for the league",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Tell me more about the suspension of Geir Helgemo for doping by the World Bridge Federation.",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_HFUUCXJW5ZFTDFYXKAJ2FLWIZA",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Does the article have more about the doping scandal in addition to the suspension of Geir Helgemo?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 113,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "How do genes work?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How do genes work?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2416409",
"passage": "Genes A gene is a short piece of DNA. Genes tell the body how to build specific proteins. There are about 20,000 genes in each cell of the human body. Together, they make up the blueprint for the human body and how it works. A person's genetic makeup is called a genotype. Information Genes are made of DNA. Strands of DNA make up part of your chromosomes. Chromosomes have matching pairs of 1 copy of a specific gene. The gene occurs in the same position on each chromosome. Genetic traits, such as eye color, are dominant or recessive: Dominant traits are controlled by 1 gene in the pair of chromosomes. Recessive traits need both genes in the gene pair to work together. Many personal characteristics, such as height, are determined by more than 1 gene. However, some diseases, such as sickle cell anemia, can be caused by a change in a single gene.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do genes work?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What other diseases are caused by a single change?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What diseases besides sickle cell anemia are caused by single change in a gene?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1469045",
"passage": "The four types of (human) Genetic diseases are:1) Single-gene/monogenic Genetic Diseases: In this category the starting point is a mutation/change in one gene. The next question is how a change in the sequence of a single gene can cause severe disorders. Genes code for proteins which are some of the most important tools for the living beings, and also take place in the structures of the cells. The results of a mutation that happens in a part of gene that codes for a functional part of a protein are unwelcome. The protein is no more functional and as a result, many severe consequences take place. Almost 6000 single gene disorders are known and it is estimated that 1 of 200 newborns face a single gene genetic disorder. Some of these are sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Aicardi Syndrome, Huntington’s disease.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Besides sickle cell anemia, what other diseases are caused by a single change in a single gene?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "What are the other types of diseases?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the other types of human genetic diseases besides monogenic?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1469045",
"passage": "3) Chromosomal Genetic Diseases: Chromosomes are big DNA molecules composed from genes. The chromosomes are located in the cell nucleus. Abnormalities in the structure, number (and not only) of the chromosomes can cause some of the most dangerous genetic disorders. This type of disorders seem to be much easier to observe because they are, sometimes, detected by examination with microscope. Down Syndrome is the most well known disease caused by chromosomal abnormalities. In this disorder there is a third copy of chromosome 21 (there are two copies of each chromosome in the cells of healthy humans). Chromosomal diseases can be also caused by segments and joins of parts of chromosomes.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Besides sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis, what are the other types of diseases?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "You missed the second type of disease. What was that?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "You missed the second type of genetic disease. What was that?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D76761",
"passage": "A large genetic mistake typically occurs in the woman's egg, which may partially explain why older women are more likely to have babies with Down syndrome . Many chromosome errors cause the fetus to be aborted before birth, but some syndromes can be born and survive, though all typically suffer severe mental and physical defects. Down syndrome is the most common and well-known chromosome defect, but there are many. Types of chromosome diseases: There are several common types of chromosome errors that cause disease. The effects of errors in the sex chromosomes (X and Y) differ greatly from errors in the autosomes (chromosomes 1..22).",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What was the second type of disease that you missed?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "That’s not what I wanted. How about recent developments in gene therapy to treat those defects?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That’s not what I wanted. How about recent developments in gene therapy to treat chromosome defects that cause Down Syndrome?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_a639b3ae-0bbb-11e6-bfa1-4efa856caf2a",
"passage": "This is all happening with ­dizzying speed. CRISPR has spawned two contentious, parallel debates, with Doudna squarely in the middle of both. The first is the ethical issue raised by the mother of the child with Down syndrome: How far should we go in editing the human genome? The new technique potentially enables changes in the human “germline” cells, which could entail changes not only to a single person’s genome but also to that of any of the person’s descendants. Many ­researchers say they worry about unintended consequences with long-term effects.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How about recent developments in gene therapy to treat chromosome defects?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "What are they worried about?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What long-term effects are researchers worried about with CRISPR editing in human germ-line cells?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_99a68b3f7ade1bc20c71d547114c2904",
"passage": "With CRISPR, the California researchers added a set of genes conferring malaria resistance to their mutant mosquitoes, as well as a powerful tool called a “gene drive” that guarantees that all of the mosquitoes’ descendants would inherit their resistance. [Why we should all hope to get bitten by a GMO mosquito] “Gene drives” work by manipulating the laws of genetics so that the desired genes are copied onto both of an offspring’s chromosomes when a mutant mates with a wild mosquito. Ordinarily, offspring get just half their traits from each parent — but with the mutant inserting its DNA into both chromosomes, mosquitoes with the gene drive were able to pass on the resistance to 99.5 percent of their offspring, the researchers say. According to the New York Times, the gene drive has the potential to spread malaria resistance throughout a wild population in a matter of just 10 mosquito generations, or a single summer. Kevin Esvelt, an evolutionary engineer at Harvard University who studies the technique in yeast and wasn’t involved in the mosquito study, called the research a “major advance.” “This work suggests that we’re a hop, skip and jump away from actual gene drive candidates for eventual release,” he told the Associated Press, For now, the mutant mosquitoes are being kept in a highly secure lab behind a series of locked doors.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are researchers worried about with CRISPR?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "No, I meant in humans.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, What long-term effects are researchers worried about with CRISPR editing in human germ-line cells?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_66HYS24A4VFDRIOJNX4HKKGJRA",
"passage": "That could be for the better, but quite possibly for the worse, since the interrelated genetic functions developed over the long history of evolution remain unknown, despite the advances Baltimore notes. While the ethical and regulatory focus of concern has been on “designer babies” or threats to the human germline, the high risk of unintended consequences also applies to editing the genes of other life forms, from mice and mosquitos to microbes. Some of the top scientists, ethicists and legal experts in the field examine these issues in The WorldPost this week. “Recent leaps in the biosciences, combined with big data analysis, have led us to the cusp of a revolution in medicine,” writes Craig Venter, who led the team that first mapped the human genome and remains on the frontier of new breakthroughs. “Not only have we learned to read and write the genetic code; now we can put it in digital form and translate it back into synthesized life.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant in humans."
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "It sounds like it could be used in many places. What other types of organisms has it been tried on?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "It sounds like it could be used in many places. What types of organisms besides humans, mosquitos, mice, and microbes has gene editing been tried on?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D771927",
"passage": "Applications as a Genome-editing and Genome Targeting Tool Following its initial demonstration in 2012 (9), the CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely adopted. This has already been successfully used to target important genes in many cell lines and organisms, including human (34), bacteria (41), zebrafish (32), C. elegans (42), plants (34), Xenopus tropicalis (43), yeast (44), Drosophila (45), monkeys (46), rabbits (47), pigs (42), rats (48) and mice (49). Several groups have now taken advantage of this method to introduce single point mutations (deletions or insertions) in a particular target gene, via a single g RNA (14, 21, 29). Using a pair of g RNA-directed Cas9 nucleases instead, it is also possible to induce large deletions or genomic rearrangements, such as inversions or translocations (50).",
"passage_id": 11,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What other types of organisms has CRISPR been tried on besides humans?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "I’ve heard a lot about RNA recently. Can it be used to edit that too?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’ve heard a lot about RNA recently. Can CRISPR be used to edit RNA?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_56710049",
"passage": "Currently, off-target effects of CRISPRi are minimal, and show a reduced response and sensitivity to single-base mismatches. Importantly, when non-specific effects do inevitably occur they are reversible, time-dependent, and less damaging than DNA editing, making them effective alternatives that can limit the off-target burden when possible. CRISPR-cas13b, using a type IV CRISPR-Cas system (as opposed to the commonly used type II) can target and edit specific RNA sequences. Such an RNA editing platform has the ability to specifically edit mRNA, and therefore protein translation, without altering the DNA. The represents a promising technology that if successful would reduce the burden of irreversible off-target mutations.",
"passage_id": 13,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I’ve heard a lot about RNA recently. Can it be used to edit that too?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "What’s the difference between the types you mentioned?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What’s the difference between the CRISPR CRISPRi and CAS13b systems?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3288094",
"passage": "What Is CRISPR? And How Can It Be Used to Turn Genes ‘Off’? June 13, 2016 | Matt Shipman CRISPR systems have been a hot research topic since they were shown to have utility as genetic engineering tools in 2012. And they’re often explained in a way that most folks can understand. But those explanations often overlook key details – like the fact that scientists are still in the process of discovering the fundamental rules of how these systems work. For example, here’s a simplified explanation: CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria from invaders such as viruses. They do this by creating small strands of RNA that match DNA sequences specific to a given invader. When those CRISPR RNAs find a match, they unleash Cas proteins that chop up the invader’s DNA, preventing it from replicating. But of course it’s more complex than that. For example, there are six different types of CRISPR systems (that we know of). One of the most widely-studied CRISPR systems is CRISPR-Cas9, which is a Type II CRISPR system.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What’s the difference between the types you mentioned and CRISPR/Cas9?"
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "That’s too basic, I’d like a more scientific explanation.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That’s too basic, I’d like a more scientific explanation. What’s the difference between the CRISPR-CAS9 and CRISPR-CAS13 systems?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D771927",
"passage": "The promise of new CRISPR gene-editing technology has always been that it might lead to a cure for specific genetic diseases. Recently published findings from a team of researchers at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worcester, Mass., suggest that a modified form of this CRISPR gene-editing technology may eventually result in a cure for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), a form of the disease that leads to progressive muscular degeneration in the face, shoulder blades and upper arms. The new CRISPR technique works by silencing the gene (DUX4) thought to be responsible for the genetic disease. Once you “turn off” the gene, it can no longer encode for the toxic proteins that lead to the deterioration of human skeletal muscle. Unlike other CRISPR techniques that focus on editing a troublesome gene, this modified approach focuses on repressing the gene. As Dr. Charis Himeda of the University of Massachusetts Medical School told me in a conversation, this technique is a “non-cutting version of CRISPR” that involves the dCas9 protein rather than the Cas9 protein.",
"passage_id": 12,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Is CRISPR too basic, I’d like a more scientific explanation?"
},
{
"number": 12,
"raw_utterance": "The developments sound exciting. What are the commercial issues using it?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "The developments sound exciting. What are the commercial issues using CRISPR for genetic diseases?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_59990826",
"passage": "Section::::Applications.:\"In vitro\" genetic depletion. Unenriched sequencing libraries often have abundant undesired sequences. Cas9 can specifically deplete the undesired sequences with double strand breakage with up to 99% efficiency and without significant off-target effects as seen with restriction enzymes. Treatment with Cas9 can deplete abundant rRNA while increasing pathogen sensitivity in RNA-seq libraries. Section::::Patents and commercialization. , SAGE Labs (part of Horizon Discovery group) had exclusive rights from one of those companies to produce and sell genetically engineered rats and non-exclusive rights for mouse and rabbit models. , Thermo Fisher Scientific had licensed intellectual property from ToolGen to develop CRISPR reagent kits. , patent rights to CRISPR were contested. Several companies formed to develop related drugs and research tools. As companies ramp up financing, doubts as to whether CRISPR can be quickly monetized were raised. In February 2017 the US Patent Office ruled on a patent interference case brought by University of California with respect to patents issued to the Broad Institute, and found that the Broad patents, with claims covering the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in eukaryotic cells, were distinct from the inventions claimed by University of California.",
"passage_id": 19,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the commercial issues using CRISPR?"
},
{
"number": 13,
"raw_utterance": "What are the alternatives to avoid licensing issues?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the alternatives to CRISPR-CAS9 to avoid patent licensing issues?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_59990826",
"passage": "Section::::Applications.:\"In vitro\" genetic depletion. Unenriched sequencing libraries often have abundant undesired sequences. Cas9 can specifically deplete the undesired sequences with double strand breakage with up to 99% efficiency and without significant off-target effects as seen with restriction enzymes. Treatment with Cas9 can deplete abundant rRNA while increasing pathogen sensitivity in RNA-seq libraries. Section::::Patents and commercialization. , SAGE Labs (part of Horizon Discovery group) had exclusive rights from one of those companies to produce and sell genetically engineered rats and non-exclusive rights for mouse and rabbit models. , Thermo Fisher Scientific had licensed intellectual property from ToolGen to develop CRISPR reagent kits. , patent rights to CRISPR were contested. Several companies formed to develop related drugs and research tools. As companies ramp up financing, doubts as to whether CRISPR can be quickly monetized were raised. In February 2017 the US Patent Office ruled on a patent interference case brought by University of California with respect to patents issued to the Broad Institute, and found that the Broad patents, with claims covering the application of CRISPR-Cas9 in eukaryotic cells, were distinct from the inventions claimed by University of California.",
"passage_id": 19,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the alternatives to avoid licensing issues for CRISPR?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 114,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I’m a runner and I’ve been feeling tired. My doctor said my ferritin count is slightly low. What should I do next?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’m a runner and I’ve been feeling tired. My doctor said my ferritin count is slightly low. What should I do next?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1809877",
"passage": "“For someone going through these types of situations, the first thing I would ask is about their sleep, nutrition, iron, etc.,” says Kelly Mc Donald, assistant coach at Cal Poly. For competitors asking their bodies to perform at one hundred percent, even a ten percent drop in how one feels is a lot — call it the athlete’s magnification glass to the layman’s perception of tired. RELATED: Exhausted? Take a second look at your blood tests. Ferritin is an intracellular protein that stores iron in the body and releases it in a controlled fashion. The amount of ferritin stored is reflective of the amount of iron stored.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What should I do next if my ferritin count is slightly low?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "How about my diet, what should I consider changing?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How about my diet, what should I consider changing to increase my iron?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3033666",
"passage": "You should try to eat at least two servings a day. My challenge to you: have 1-2 servings of vegetables at every meal for a week. Here’s how. [Breakfast] Whole-egg omelette with chopped mixed vegetables [Lunch] Big ass salad [Dinner] Paleo spaghetti with chicken breasts and a side of wild rice5. Enjoy your food! Try new things, cook differently, use wacky spices. Sautee your vegetables instead of boiling them. Bake them instead of sauteing. Use a crock pot instead. Get a spice sampler to make sure you experiment with new flavors. Or, try ordering some different types of meat from a reputable vendor.",
"passage_id": 7,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How about my diet, what should I consider changing?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "No, I meant to help my ferritin specifically.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant what should I consider changing in my diet to help my ferritin levels specifically.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D842507",
"passage": "Related Articles Fastest Ways to Increase Ferritin How to Raise Hemoglobin Levels Fast How to Raise Your Iron Level Without Supplements Meals for Iron Deficiency Your body requires the mineral iron for a number of crucial functions, including carrying oxygen from your lungs throughout the rest of the body. Ferritin, a protein, serves as a storage form of iron that when low indicates iron deficiency. Your physician interprets your ferritin test results and recommends improving your ferritin levels when tests indicate they are low. With some know-how and dietary changes, you can improve your iron intake so that your ferritin levels increase.1Consume a wide variety of iron-rich foods. Following a restrictive diet that omits many foods increases your risk of having low ferritin. There are two forms of iron – animal foods contain heme iron, while plants contain non-heme iron. Eat plenty of vegetables, beans, lentils, whole grains and fortified foods for non-heme iron. You can find heme iron in eggs, meat, fish, poultry and seafood.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "No, I meant to help my ferritin specifically."
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "What is the difference between the two types?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the difference between heme and non-heme iron?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D975417",
"passage": "Certain chemicals like polyphenols which are found in tea, coffee, other beverages, and many plants, limit the absorption of non-heme iron. What is the differences between heme iron and nonheme iron?• Heme iron is much more bioavailable than non-heme iron so that heme iron is better absorbed than non heme iron.• Heme iron is found only in animal foods while non-heme iron is found in both animal and plant foods.• Plant foods contain only non-heme iron. Heme irons are absent in the plant foods.• Foods rich in heme-iron can improve the absorption of non-heme iron.• The most abundant dietary iron is non-heme iron. Normally, 60% of non-heme iron is present in animal products. The remaining 40% is heme iron.• Dietary non-heme iron is present as ferric iron (Fe III), and it has to be reduced to ferrous iron (Fe II) in order to be absorbed.• Unlike non-heme iron, heme iron is associated with hemoglobin and myoglobin in the form of ferrous (Fe II) iron.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the difference between animal foods and plants that contain non-heme iron?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "I’m vegetarian. So, what can I do to improve it and increase my levels?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’m vegetarian. What can I do to improve absorption for non-heme iron and increase my level of ferritin?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2613436",
"passage": "What have you done to increase your ferritin levels? Any supplements, diets, that work? I am trying to find out as much as I can. Per my doctor’s instructions, I started taking liquid B12 along with methyl folate which is supposed to help with the vitamin B12 absorption (although my B12 isn’t really low). Reply Cheo on December 19, 2015 at 5:44 pm said: Vitamins B, C, F, zinc, iron, copper and pteroin are essential for hair growth. Drinking plenty of water and eating plenty of raw fruits and vegetables is probably the best way to achieving healthy hair. Check out Reply Monica on November 20, 2015 at 2:10 pm said: Hi – I’ve lost almost all my hair in the last 3 years…skin and nails are a mess… bleeding heavily through perimenopause at age 52. My ferritin level is 6.7; Iron is 18; and Transferrin Saturation is 4.64. Hemoglobin is 9.7. I am a vegetarian. Please tell me how to raise these levels effectively and quickly.",
"passage_id": 18,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I’m vegetarian. So, what can I do to improve my levels of ferritin?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "I heard eating eggs might help.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I heard eating eggs might help improve my ferritin levels.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1837069",
"passage": "Need to Lose Weight? Enter your details to calculate your ideal weight range, and discover how soon you could reach it!Imperial Metric Height ft in Weight st lb Weight Loss Resources says…This study suggests that eating eggs for breakfast makes you feel fuller for longer so that you eat less at your next few meals. This is great news if you’re trying to lose weight as it means you may find it easier to cut calories without feeling hungry. In fact, based on these results you could expect to lose up to 2lb a month, simply by eating eggs for breakfast!Eggs are packed with a variety of nutrients including protein, zinc, iron and vitamins A, D, E and B12, but contain just 85 calories each. Old advice to limit eggs to just a few each week has also been abandoned. According to the Food Standards Agency, there’s now no limit to the number of eggs you can eat in a week as part of a healthy balanced diet.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I heard eating eggs might help."
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "I’m also a woman over 50. How many do I need to eat to get the recommended amount?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’m a female vegetarian runner over 50. How many eggs do I need to eat to get the recommended amount of iron in my diet?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2399473",
"passage": "You’ll get over 3.5 grams of protein from the white of a large egg. Your diet should consist of 10 to 35 percent calories from protein, according to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010. This means that if you are on a 2,000-calorie diet, you need to get 200 to 700 calories from protein every day. There are 4 calories in each gram of protein, so divide the calories by 4 to convert them to grams of protein. This amounts to 50 to 175 grams of protein, based on 2,000 calories, which gives you 2 to 7 percent of the recommended amount of daily protein. Kinds of Minerals Hard-boiled egg whites contain several minerals, just not in large amounts. You’ll get some of the bone-building minerals -- calcium, magnesium and phosphorus -- as well as the electrolyte minerals potassium and sodium. Electrolytes conduct electricity for muscle and heart functions. This lean protein source even has a bit of iron, a mineral you need for blood processes, as well as antioxidant minerals zinc and selenium.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How many eggs do I need to eat to get the recommended amount of iron?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "I’m starting to train for a marathon, what should I consider?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’m starting to train for a marathon, what should I consider in my vegetarian diet?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_58c2e674-865c-11e6-92c2-14b64f3d453f",
"passage": "Poor health plagued Rich Roll before he adopted a plant-based diet and began a career as a world-class ultramarathoner in his 40s. And tennis star Venus Williams famously chose a raw vegan regimen five years ago after being diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome, an immune-system disorder that caused her joint pain, fatigue and shortness of breath. Along with these stories comes a common query from incredulous non-vegans: “How do you get enough protein?” “It’s always the first question,” says Torre Washington, a bodybuilder who has been following a vegan diet for 18 years, laughing. “But you really don’t need protein to get shredded and lean. I’m looking for nutrients and focused on variety.” Indeed, vegan athletes including Washington and 10-time Olympic medalist Carl Lewis — who retired from athletic competition in 1997 and has said that athletes have “the worst diets in the world and compete in spite of it” — tend to agree that athletes should put an emphasis on increased calories when in training, as opposed to more protein.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I’m starting to train for a marathon, what should I consider?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "No, I’m starting to train for a marathon, what is a one week diet?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, I’m starting to train for a marathon, what is a one week vegetarian diet?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3512838",
"passage": "Try our other marathon meal plans: Vegetarian marathon meal plan Vegan marathon meal plan Gluten-free marathon meal plan Marathon meal plan - Monday It's the final countdown! Get your pre-race nutrition right with our week of meal plans from sports nutritionist James Collins... Monday's meal plan Marathon meal plan - Tuesday It's the week before the marathon and getting your nutrition right is key to peak performance. Sports nutritionist James Collins shares his pre-race meal plan for Tuesday... Tuesday's meal plan Marathon meal plan - Wednesday Make sure you're giving your body all it needs in the week leading up to an endurance event. Sports nutritionist, James Collins explains why by Wednesday your carbohydrate intake should be on the rise... Wednesday's meal plan Marathon meal plan - Thursday Sports nutritionist, James Collins shares his meal plan for the week before a big race - Thursday is all about high quality protein and increasing your carbohydrate intake... Thursday's meal plan Marathon meal plan - Friday48 hours of carb-loading begins on Friday.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I’m starting to train for a marathon, what is a one week diet?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 115,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "How are mental health disorders perceived and addressed around the world?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How are mental health disorders perceived and addressed around the world?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D552979",
"passage": "The survey data, which included responses from 16 countries in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia, and the South Pacific, showed that 22.1% of participants from developing countries and 11.7% of participants from developed countries experienced embarrassment and discrimination due to their mental illness. However, the authors note that these figures likely underestimate the extent of stigma associated with mental illness since they only evaluated data on anxiety and mood disorders. (13)Finally, presenting mental health care services in culturally-sensitive ways may be essential to increasing access to and usage of mental health care services, as local beliefs about mental health often differ from the Western biomedical perspective on mental illness. For example, one study comparing Indian and American attitudes toward mental illness surveyed students at a university in the Himalayan region of Northern India and at a university in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. The Indian students were more likely to view depression as arising from personally controllable causes (e.g. failure to achieve goals) and to “endorse social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation” as ways to deal with depression.",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How are mental health disorders perceived and addressed around the world?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What are the causes of stigma in Africa?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the causes of mental health stigma in Africa?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_39407203",
"passage": "The WHO is working to move other countries' mental health policies forward. Section::::Perspectives. The Southeast African Great Lakes region has a long-standing tribal history of traditional medicine and practices. Although some slight progress has been made with the availability of mental health resources in these areas, still many people in rural Southeast Africa utilize traditional methods to treat mental illness. According to Vikram Patel, a global mental health expert and professor at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the stigmatization of mental illness is due to traditional and cultural methods of dealing with these situations and can only be changed through improved support, education, and greater awareness. In traditional Southeast Africa, when there is a situation in which there is a mental health concern, the patient is usually treated without their consent. For example, if the patient is violent or destructive, he is sedated by the traditional healer or by family members in order to commence therapy, and people are often isolated or treated against their will in order to prevent patients from hurting themselves or others.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the causes of stigma in Africa?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Could you expand on some of these methods?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Could you expand on some of these Southeast African traditional and cultural methods of dealing with mental health issues?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_26451793",
"passage": "The unique infrageneric diversity of \"Aloe L.\" (\"Aloaceae/Asphodelaceae\") and the broad therapeutic uses in southern Africa, suggest its cultural significance in the subcontinent. Palms are very commonly used as ritual elements, as well as an ingredient in ATM. Some people in Grahamstown, South Africa use traditional plants and weeds as an alternative. \"Cannabis sativa\" (intsango). The fresh leaves are made into a decoction that is taken three times a day to treat asthma, it is also used as steam. In other parts of South Africa it is used to cure bronchitis, headaches, labour pains and hypertension. \"Carduus tenuiflorus\" (uMhlakavuthwa). The plant is used to extricate poison or diseases from a sick person. It is believed the plant sucks out the cause of the illness in itself. \"Datura stramonium\" (uQhwangu-qhwangu). Fresh leaves fare used as a bandage that soothes pain and swelling. It's also used as an antiseptic after circumcision. With the latter, the plant is only used once, it should not be used repetitively as it can be harmful due to its potency.",
"passage_id": 11,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Could you expand on some of the traditional methods of treating mental illness in Southeast Africa?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "How effective are these methods and could they be combined with Western medicine?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How effective are traditional African methods for treating mental health issues and could they be combined with Western medicine?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_34083174",
"passage": "African Traditional Medicine still plays a large role in African society. It was found that 45% of the black patients that attended a community mental health clinic had consulted a healer for their problem. Additionally, 26% were simultaneously seeking treatment from both the traditional healers and the psychiatrists. Traditional healers are often instrumental in treating mental illness. Psychological healing relies more on a cultural and emotional understanding than it does on possessing medical knowledge. In an interview, Dr. Mustafa Elmasri, a Gaza psychologist with over twenty years of experience describes how he has often collaborated with African Traditional Medicine. Instead of labelling traditional healers as primitive and demonic, he worked with them and even trained some of them in scientific methods for identifying certain mental illnesses such as epilepsy and psychosis. Dr. Elmasri found that \"traditional healers were the key partner beyond the patients and their families in gaining an understanding of the psychological experience and access to social support structures\". Beliefs are fundamental to behaviour, and therefore a deeper understanding of traditional medicine will help to improve the effectiveness of psychological care.",
"passage_id": 11,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How effective are the traditional methods of treating mental illness and could they be combined with Western medicine?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. Now, what about the causes in Asia?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Now, what about the causes of mental health stigma in Asia?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1671928",
"passage": "Labels and unfair treatment are results of what we call stigma. Stigma comes from negative and incorrect beliefs, or stereotypes, about groups of people. Fear of being left out or picked on because of who you are is a part of stigma. The effects of stigma can make you feel sad, ashamed or alone. People with mental health challenges sometimes experience stigma. They get called “crazy” or “mental” or “emo.” These labels are based on stereotypes, not on fact. You can help break down stigma by learning and sharing the truth about mental health. Living with mental illness You might not realize it, but you probably know someone who has a mental illness. It could be a friend, family member, classmate, neighbor, or teacher. Lots of famous people have had struggles with mental health, like President Abraham Lincoln and actress Demi Lovato. People are made up of many different things. Everyone has different likes and dislikes, talents, thoughts, and bodies. A mental illness is not the only thing to know about a person.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Now what about the causes of mental illness in Asia?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Is there a relationship between these values and mental illness in the region?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Is there a relationship between Asian cultural values and mental illness?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3399796",
"passage": "Some sub-populations of cultures, such as those from India and Pakistan, are reluctant to accept a diagnosis of severe emotional illness or mental retardation because it severely reduces the chances of other members of the family getting married. In Vietnamese culture, mystical beliefs explain physical and mental illness. Health is viewed as the result of a harmonious balance between the poles of hot and cold that govern bodily functions. Vietnamese don’t readily accept Western mental health counseling and interventions, particularly when self-disclosure is expected. However, it is possible to accept assistance if trust has been gained. Russian immigrants frequently view U. S. medical care with a degree of mistrust. The Russian experience with medical practitioners has been an authoritarian relationship in which free exchange of information and open discussion was not usual. As a result, many Russian patients find it difficult to question a physician and to talk openly about medical concerns. Patients expect a paternalistic approach-the competent health care professional does not ask patients what they want to do, but tells them what to do.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Is there a relationship between African Traditional Medicine and mental illness in the region?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Wow. Besides these values, what other factors could cause stigmatization?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Wow. Besides Asian cultural values, what other factors could cause stigmatization of mental illness in the region of Asia?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D552979",
"passage": "(7) However, the stigmatization of mental illness can be influenced by other factors, such as the perceived cause of the illness. In a 2003 study, Chinese Americans and European Americans were presented with a vignette in which an individual was diagnosed with schizophrenia or a major depressive disorder. Participants were then told that experts had concluded that the individual’s illness was “genetic”, “partly genetic”, or “not genetic” in origin, and participants were asked to rate how they would feel if one of their children dated, married, or reproduced with the subject of the vignette. Genetic attribution of mental illness significantly reduced unwillingness to marry and reproduce among Chinese Americans, but it increased the same measures among European Americans, supporting previous findings of cultural variations in patterns of mental illness stigmatization. (8)Many studies have reported other significant differences in attitudes towards mental illness among ethnic groups in the United States. Carpenter-Song et al. (2010) conducted an intensive 18-month observation-based ethnographic study of 25 severely mentally ill individuals living in inner city Hartford, Connecticut.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Besides paternalistic approach, what other factors could cause stigmatization in Africa?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "What about the causes in North America?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What about the causes of mental health stigmatisation in North America?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_2QZMXNK4L5DMZE7H3PE6SKTLVA",
"passage": "In an interview last year, Resnick said, “you have to remember, people kill for all sorts of reasons. They kill for profit or love or greed.” Mental health advocates say comments such as Trump’s labeling shooters as “mentally ill monsters” can exacerbate false stereotypes about the mentally ill. “When you blame people with mental illness for things like mass shootings, it’s not just untrue,” said Angela Kimball, head of the National Alliance on Mental Illness. “It keeps people from seeking help even when they need it. It spreads unjustified fears about the mentally ill and worsens the stigma around it.\" The 2018 FBI study found that shooters typically experienced several stressors in the year before they attack: financial pressures, fights with classmates or co-workers, and substance abuse. And on average, shooters displayed four to five concerning behaviors that those around them could notice — the most frequent being behavior related to mental health, interpersonal conflicts or some sign of violent intent. Researchers point out that other countries have similar rates of mental illness but a small fraction of America’s gun deaths.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about the causes of mental illness in North America?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "Hmm. What has the Alliance done to help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Hmm. What has the National Alliance on Mental Illness done to help people with mental illness in America?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_0ccf7020-0053-11e4-b203-f4b4c664cccf",
"passage": "The Post painted a heartbreaking picture of the helplessness felt by caregivers of people with mental illness [“Behind the yellow door,” June 29]. In our well-meant efforts to protect people outside the mainstream from abuse, we have lost the ability to provide needed help to those unable to seek it for themselves. Family members must watch a loved one slip deeper into the chaos of a disordered mind, ever fearful that the event that crosses a boundary and requires treatment may also be a tragedy. The National Alliance for Mental Illness provides a free 12-week course for family members. These classes, named Family to Family, are taught by volunteers who have lived through similar frustrations and fears. The course explains the physical nature of mental illness, describes current medications and treatments, and provides practical techniques for effective communication between caregivers and people with mental illness. Bob Wirtz, Baltimore",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What has the National Alliance on Mental Illness done to help people with mental illness?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "I found the Indian student's approach to treating depression interesting. Have their approaches been tried elsewhere?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I found the Indian student's approach to treating depression through social support and spiritual reflection or relaxation interesting. Have their approaches been tried elsewhere?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_41a26f50a99619566c0d104e33b9e438",
"passage": "And, as in America, the rate of suicides, particularly among men, has been rising. So, how to get help to all the people who needed it when there were few financial, technical or material resources? And how to convince people to reach out when their culture made them reluctant to admit their emotional pain for fear of seeming weak or even possessed? To address both, Chibanda stripped mental health care down to basic human connection. He removed the medical and technical elements that made seeking treatment intimidating, and developed a simple solution to enlist the help of lay health workers who could take on matriarchal roles. He first called the meeting spots “mental health benches,” but that was too stigmatizing, so he gave them a more inviting name: “Friendship Benches.” The grandmothers are trained in what is essentially the Western model of cognitive behavioral therapy, but they use indigenous terms that their “patients” can more easily relate to. There’s not even a word for depression in Zimbabwe, that’s too clinical.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Have the Indian student's approaches to treating depression been tried elsewhere?"
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "Can you tell me more about Chibanda's approach? How effective has it been?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me more about Chibanda's approach to treating mental illness? How effective has it been?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_41a26f50a99619566c0d104e33b9e438",
"passage": "\"The psychological approach of problem-solving therapy works through enabling a more positive orientation toward resolving problems and empowering people to have a sense of greater coping and control over their lives.” Chibanda’s program has reached 30,000 Zimbabweans, and his clinical trials have shown a significant decrease in suicidal thoughts and depressive symptoms after the people meet with the grandmothers, he said. And the treatment is continuous. After the patients have done several sessions with the grandmothers, they are often referred to peer support groups where they might learn a skill together, like how to weave bags with recycled plastic. “It’s a powerful way of keeping that link with the grandmothers,” Chibanda said in an interview. “Human contact, which is often overlooked when we prescribe medication, can be equally as effective for mild to moderate depression. I fell in love with the whole idea of sitting down with people and being able to uplift a person, talk them through and out of depression through all of these evidence-based practices.” In Zimbabwe, the ratio of traditional mental health professionals to the population in need is an extreme example of a global problem affecting both the developing and developed world.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me more about Chibanda's approach to treating mental illness? How effective has it been?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 116,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "How are literary devices used in Biblical poetry?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How are literary devices used in Biblical poetry?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_1609007",
"passage": "A fuller appreciation of the formal literary virtues of Biblical poetry remained unavailable for European Christians until 1754, when Robert Lowth (later made a bishop in the Church of England), kinder to the Hebrew language than his own, published \"Praelectiones Academicae de Sacra Poesi Hebraeorum\", which identified parallelism as the chief rhetorical device within Hebrew poetry. In many European vernacular literatures, Christian poetry appears among the earliest monuments of those literatures, and Biblical paraphrases in verse often precede Bible translations. In Old English poetry, the \"Dream of the Rood\", a meditation on Christ's crucifixion which adapts Germanic heroic imagery and applies it to Jesus, is one of the earliest extant monuments of Old English literature. Dante Alighieri's \"The Divine Comedy\" represents one of the earliest monuments of Italian vernacular literature. Much Old Irish poetry was the work of Irish monks and is on religious themes. This story is repeated in most European languages. Modern Christian poetry especially suffers from a difficulty of definition. The writings of a Christian poet are not necessarily classified as Christian poetry.",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How are literary devices used in Biblical poetry?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "That's interesting. How is it defined?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That's interesting. How is Christian poetry defined?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_1609007",
"passage": "Christian poetry Christian poetry is any poetry that contains Christian teachings, themes, or references. The influence of Christianity on poetry has been great in any area that Christianity has taken hold. Christian poems often directly reference the Bible, while others provide allegory. Section::::Overview of Christian poetry. Poetic forms have been used by Christians since the recorded history of the faith begins. The earliest Christian poetry, in fact, appears in the New Testament. Canticles such as the \"Magnificat\" and \"Nunc Dimittis\", which appear in the Gospel of Luke, take the Biblical poetry of the psalms of the Hebrew Bible as their models. Many Biblical scholars also believe that St Paul of Tarsus quotes bits of early Christian hymns in his epistles. Passages such as Philippians 2:5-11 (following) are thought by many Biblical scholars to represent early Christian hymns that were being quoted by the Apostle: Within the world of classical antiquity, Christian poets often struggled with their relationship to the existing traditions of Greek and Latin poetry, which were of course heavily influenced by paganism.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How is Christian poetry defined?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How did those traditions affect them?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did the existing traditions of Greek and Latin poetry affect Christian Poets?",
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"passage": "Paul quotes the pagan poets Aratus and Epimenides in Acts 17:28: \"For in him we live, and move, and have our being: as certain also of your own poets have said, 'For we are also his offspring.'\" Some early Christian poets such as Ausonius continued to include allusions to pagan deities and standard classical figures and allusions continued to appear in his verse. Other Christian poems of the late Roman Empire, such as the \"Psychomachia\" of Prudentius, cut back on allusions to Greek mythology, but continue the use of inherited classical forms. Other early Christian poets were more innovative. The hymnodist Venantius Fortunatus wrote a number of important poems that are still used in the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church, such as the \"Vexilla Regis\" (\"The Royal Standard\") and \"Pange, lingua, gloriosi proelium certaminis\" (\"Sing, O my tongue, of the glorious struggle\"). From a literary and linguistic viewpoint, these hymns represent important innovations; they turn away from Greek prosody and instead seem to have been based on the rhythmic marching songs of Roman armies.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did traditions of Greek and Latin poetry affect Christian poets?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "That's interesting about Christianity. How are devices used in Islamic ones?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That's interesting about Christianity. How are literary devices used in Islamic poetry?",
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"passage": "Islamic poetry Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims. Islamic poetry has been written in many languages. Section::::History and origins. Beginning with the migration of Muhammad and his followers to Mecca (A.D. 622), also known as the Hijrah, the quasida or ode was a sharp contrast to the sacred Quran. Writers at the time of pre-Islamic poetry were considered to be lacking the knowledge and authority necessary to be writing such poetry, thus leading this period of time to be called the “Age of Ignorance”. This time period caused tension amongst the early Islamic world, since the ode style of writing was seen as profane to the sacred text of the Quran. Islamic poetry is very important and it is a heritage passed from generation to generation. These poems and features examine Muslim faith and Islamic culture and address important events, holidays, and occasions such as Ramadan. These poets explore a range of spiritual, literary, and political concerns from the 6th century to the present day. Also, Islamic poetry was found centuries ago.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How are devices used in Islamic poetry?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. How does the use of rhyme in Biblical poetry compare?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. How does the use of rhyme in Biblical poetry compare to the use of rhyme in Islamic poetry?",
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"passage": "The Arabs have always used rhymes extensively, most notably in their long, rhyming qasidas. Some classical poetry forms, such as Venpa of the Tamil language, had rigid grammars (to the point that they could be expressed as a context-free grammar), which ensured a rhythm. Alliteration played a key role in structuring early Germanic and English forms of poetry (called alliterative verse), akin to the role of rhyme in later European poetry. The alliterative patterns of early Germanic poetry and the rhyme schemes of Modern European poetry alike both include meter as a key part of their structure, which determines when the listener expects instances of rhyme or alliteration to occur. In this sense, both alliteration and rhyme, when used in poetic structures, help to emphasise and define a rhythmic pattern. By contrast, the chief device of Biblical poetry in ancient Hebrew was parallelism, a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three; a verse form that lent itself to antiphonal or call- and-response performance.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. How does the use of rhyme in Biblical poetry compare to today?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Why didn't it use rhymes as much?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why didn't Biblical poetry use rhymes as extensively as Arabic?",
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"passage": "Tonal languages include Chinese, Vietnamese and most Subsaharan languages. Metrical rhythm generally involves precise arrangements of stresses or syllables into repeated patterns called feet within a line. In Modern English verse the pattern of stresses primarily differentiate feet, so rhythm based on meter in Modern English is most often founded on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (alone or elided). In the classical languages, on the other hand, while the metrical units are similar, vowel length rather than stresses define the meter. Old English poetry used a metrical pattern involving varied numbers of syllables but a fixed number of strong stresses in each line. The chief device of ancient Hebrew Biblical poetry, including many of the psalms, was \"parallelism\", a rhetorical structure in which successive lines reflected each other in grammatical structure, sound structure, notional content, or all three. Parallelism lent itself to antiphonal or call-and-response performance, which could also be reinforced by intonation. Thus, Biblical poetry relies much less on metrical feet to create rhythm, but instead creates rhythm based on much larger sound units of lines, phrases and sentences.",
"passage_id": 11,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why did't Biblical poetry use rhymes as much?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Ahh, it seems like rhyming and parallelism share similar functions. How did both types of poetry influence other kinds of poetry?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Ahh, it seems like rhyming and parallelism share similar functions. How did Islamic and Biblical poetry influence other kinds of poetry?",
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"passage": "Rhymed prose Rhymed prose is a literary form and literary genre, written in unmetrical rhymes. This form has been known in many different cultures. In some cases the rhymed prose is a distinctive, well-defined style of writing. In modern literary traditions the boundaries of poetry are very broad (free verse, prose poetry, etc.), and some works may be described both as prose and poetry. Section::::Arabic culture and influences. In classic Arabic literature the rhymed prose is called \"saj'\". An elaborate Arabic kind of rhymed prose is \"maqama\". It influenced other cultures of the Muslim world, such as Persian (as exemplified by Saadi's \"Gulestan\") and Turkish (). \"Maqama\" also influenced the medieval Hebrew literature, a significant amount of which was produced by Jews of the Muslim world. It influenced the style of Yehuda Alharizi, Ibn Zabara, Ibn Hasdai (Abraham ben Samuel ha-Levi ibn Hasdai), Ibn Sahula, Jacob ben Eleazer. The corresponding works were called \"maqamat\" or \"mahbarot\" (\"mahberot\", e.g., \"Mahbarot Emmanuel\", by Immanuel the Roman).",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did rhyming and parallelism influence other kinds of poetry?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "Did Biblical poetry have a similar impact?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Did Biblical poetry have a similar impact on other kinds of religious poetry?",
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"passage": "Modern Hebrew poetry Modern Hebrew poetry is poetry written in the Hebrew language. It was pioneered by Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, and it was developed by the Haskalah movements, that saw poetry as the most quality genre for Hebrew writing. The first Haskalah poet, who heavily influenced the later poets, was Naphtali Hirz Wessely, at the end of the 18th Century, and after him came Shalom HaCohen, Max Letteris, Abraham Dob Bär Lebensohn, his son Micah Joseph, Judah Leib Gordon and others. Haskalah poetry was greatly influenced by the contemporary European poetry, as well as the poetry of the previous ages, especially Biblical poetry and pastoralism. It was mostly a didactic form of poetry, and dealt with the world, the public, and contemporary trends, but not the individual. A secular Galician Jew, Naftali Herz Imber, wrote the lyrics to HaTikva in 1878; this later became the national anthem of Israel. In the age after the Haskalah, many prominent poets were associated with Hovevei Zion. They included Shaul Tchernihovsky and Haim Nahman Bialik, who would later be considered Israel's national poet.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Did Biblical poetry have a similar impact?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 117,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "A friend said there were massive protests in Nigeria towards the end of 2020. What happened?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "A friend said there were massive protests in Nigeria towards the end of 2020. What happened?",
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"passage": "People in the world’s largest Black nation have taken to the streets to demand one thing of their police: Stop killing us. Over the last 10 days, Nigerians have been protesting against the Special Anti-Robbery Squad, a unit of the Nigerian federal police force, after a video emerged of officers allegedly killing a man. Soon the hashtag #EndSars, as the unit is known, began trending internationally. Nigerian President Muhammadu Buhari, a former military dictator, announced that SARS will be disbanded, but that promise has not been enough to quell the anger. Nigerians continue to protest. Nigeria’s movement comes as protests demanding the protection of Black lives continue in the United States. At their core, the protests carry the same message: A country that allows state security agents to kill and abuse people with impunity is not a mature democracy. And, as in the United States, this is not the first time Nigerians have risen up against police brutality. Amnesty International documented at least 82 cases of torture, extrajudicial killings, extortion and rape by SARS between January 2017 and May 2020.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What happened when a friend said there were massive protests in Nigeria towards the end of 2020?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Why was the Squad established in the first place?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why was the Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS) established in the first place?",
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"passage": "Now he doesn’t drive after dark. On that October night last year, he said, the officers drained his bank account. His lawyer called the police station. Nothing happened. “You kind of give up on these things,” Olaitan said. SARS formed in 1992 to combat armed robbery with “the element of surprise,” founder Simeon Danladi Midenda told the Nigerian news site Vanguard. “The secret behind the successes of the original SARS was its facelessness,” the former police commissioner said in the 2017 interview. “We operated in plain clothes and used plain vehicles that could not be associated with security or any government agency.” But over the years, critics say, officers took advantage of that stealth mandate, ordering people off the road and taking their valuables without cause. “SARS has made itself a nuisance and a tool of oppression,” said JJ Omojuwa, a Nigerian blogger with 933,000 followers on Twitter. Temi Afolabi, a lawyer in Lagos, said officers have a reputation for searching phones at random and detaining people for outrageous reasons.",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why was the Squad of Nigerian federal police established in the first place?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "What's an example of those reasons?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What's an example of the reasons why (Special Anti-Robbery Squad) SARS officers detain people?",
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"passage": "The officers, who often worked in plain clothes, developed a reputation for stopping young people, accusing them of theft and then stealing their money, activists say. The Nigerian Police Force said it has fired at least two officers since the demonstrations began and has said it would probe past atrocities with the help of civil society leaders. Amnesty International said it has documented 82 cases of the squad’s abuses in the past three years, including beating, hanging, mock execution, sexual assault and waterboarding. In Lagos, chaos escalated on Tuesday following news reports that officers had killed two people. A crowd torched a police station, and protesters blocked roads. Police deployed anti-riot officers to “protect the lives and property of all Nigerians and secure critical national infrastructure across the country,” the department said in a statement. The crisis intensified as Nigeria grapples with the economic shock of the coronavirus pandemic on top of an Islamist insurgency in the northeast — both of which have fueled resentment among its 200 million people.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What's an example of Nigerian police officers searching phones at random and detaining people for outrageous reasons?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "How did the international community respond?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did the international community respond to the EndSars protests in Nigeria?",
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"passage": "One month after the kidnapping of more than 300 students in Chibok, Nigeria, international teams from the U.S., U.K., China, France and Israel have arrived in Nigeria to assist local authorities in the hunt for the 276 girls who are still missing. International outcry, which took off in social media via the hashtag #BringBackOurGirls on Twitter and Instagram, has drawn so much attention to the crisis as to make it impossible for Nigeria’s leaders to ignore. The role of these teams is primarily advisory. It’s highly unlikely a team of Chinese commandos will descend into the Sambisa forest to rescue the girls. Instead, assistance to Nigeria in the hunt for the Chibok girls is centered around expertise in locating them, negotiations with Boko Haram for their release, ensuring that potential rescue attempts don’t cause more harm than good and assisting returned girls with counseling and other needed services. While some are calling for U.S. military action to rescue the Chibok girls, realistically, the task of saving and protecting them will fall largely to Nigeria’s security and intelligence services, with the assistance of the outside experts.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did the international community respond to the crisis in Nigeria?"
},
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"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay, but I meant their response to the EndSars protests.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay, but I meant the international community's response to the EndSars protests.",
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"passage": "What started as a grass-roots movement to end police brutality in Africa’s most populous country has become a global phenomenon embraced by the world’s biggest celebrities: #EndSARS. In the two weeks since Nigerians began flooding the streets to rally against a police unit widely viewed as abusive, overseas megastars such as Beyoncé, Rihanna, Cardi B and Drake have thrown their fame behind the cause. Now the protest is dominating social media feeds on practically every continent and, by Wednesday, had made its way into the U.S. presidential race. “The United States must stand with Nigerians who are peacefully demonstrating for police reform and seeking an end to corruption in their democracy,” Democratic nominee Joe Biden said in a statement. Attention to the movement skyrocketed after Tuesday night, when protesters and human rights groups say Nigerian soldiers opened fire on a peaceful demonstration in Lagos, a metropolis of approximately 20 million. “There was no warning,” one protester told The Washington Post, like others speaking on the condition of anonymity because they feared retribution.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay, but I meant the response to the EndSars protests."
},
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"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Did that help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Did international support from the US help with the EndSars movement?",
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"passage": "As Human Rights Watch’s Sarah Margon notes, any action to assist the Nigerian army is fraught with moral hazard; this is an army that is responsible for almost as many abuses against civilians in northeastern Nigeria as Boko Haram itself. There are few alternatives to doing so, however. The Nigerian army is not going to disappear, which is why Margon is right to argue that assistance in fighting Boko Haram should be part of a more comprehensive effort to improve respect for human rights in Nigeria’s armed forces. For ordinary Nigerians, though, the problem of lacking basic protection remains. This is true throughout Nigeria, not just in Boko Haram-affected areas. Nigeria’s police are often corrupt, under-equipped and incapable of reaching crime scenes in a timely fashion. In the northeast, even when communities have warning of an attack — as was apparently the case in Chibok — neither the police nor the army can be counted upon to respond quickly enough to stop such abuses. Faced with a government that cannot protect their property or lives, some Nigerians in the northeast are creating vigilante groups to do so themselves.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Did the international teams from the U.S., U.K., China, France and Israel help with the hunt for the 276 girls still missing in Nigeria?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "My friend also mentioned that women were instrumental to the movement. What was their role?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "My friend also mentioned that women were instrumental to the EndSars movement. What was their role?",
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"passage": "Nigeria’s #EndSARS movement has spawned over 150 mass protests in cities across the country, with demonstrations intensifying after soldiers reportedly fired live rounds into protesters at the Lekki toll plaza in Lagos on Oct. 20. The movement has also inspired solidarity protests in major cities of the world, including London, New York, Berlin and Washington. Women play a leading role in the ongoing #EndSARS movement against police brutality and government violence in Nigeria, specifically seeking to abolish a federal police unit called the Special Anti-Robbery Squad. One nascent women’s group in particular, the Feminist Coalition, has used digital platforms to mobilize funds and design strategies to support protesters across Nigeria. The Feminist Coalition’s work in the #EndSARS movement continues a long history of women leading and supporting political mobilizations across Africa. This engagement, however, has typically been minimized or ignored outright in the retelling of the events. Here’s what you need to know. Who are the Feminist Coalition? In July, Damilola Odufuwa and Odunayo Eweniyi, both under 30, formed the Feminist Coalition activist group alongside 12 other young women.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What was the role of women in the EndSars movement?"
},
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"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "That's cool. Tell me more about them.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That's cool. Tell me more about the Feminist Coalition.",
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"passage": "The group advocates equality for women in Nigeria through a focus on advancing education, financial freedom and representation in public office. Based in Lagos, the group uses online platforms for its work. The Feminist Coalition gained popularity when it took on a central role in the #EndSARS protests just two months later. It raised and managed funds for the movement, established a legal aid service made up of volunteers, and coordinated help lines to align efforts across the country. Nigeria’s Feminist Coalition capitalizes on mobile apps Communication technologies have facilitated the #EndSARS protests. The online mobilization effort has garnered global support, generating over 28 million tweets within 48 hours of the online campaign’s kickoff on Oct. 8. The speed and reach of new technologies have enabled efficient communication of information for community building and collaboration. These technologies also helped the #EndSARS movement navigate the Nigerian government’s responses to the protests. Through WhatsApp and Twitter, activists shared information, reaching a wide network of supporters. Real-time transmission of texts, pictures and videos of the protests and violence by police and soldiers also prompted swift domestic and international condemnation of the Nigerian government.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the Feminist Coalition?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "There was mention of the protection of Black lives earlier. How is it related to this movement?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "There was mention of the protection of Black lives earlier. How are they related?",
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"passage": "A central question is: Can #BlackLivesMatter protests effect meaningful change in government? My book, “Civil Rights and the Making of the Modern American State,” examined an earlier movement focused on the protection of black lives. I studied archival materials of the battle by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) against lynching and mob violence from 1909 to 1923. My research showed how the NAACP raised public awareness, met with American presidents, secured the support of Members of Congress, and won a consequential criminal justice victory in the Supreme Court. Drawing from the book’s findings, we can identify three key things to know about ongoing #BlackLivesMatter protests: 1. The fight to protect black lives from unjust state violence has deep historical roots Some people, including Chicago mayor Rahm Emanuel, have expressed confusion as to why protesters believe recent police misconduct is emblematic of a system of racial injustice and not just a few bad apples. For many blacks, what is happening right now is not new; it is grounded in a documented history of state violence against black citizens.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How is the protection of Black lives mentioned earlier related to the #EndSARS movement?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "What role did women play in that?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What role did women play in the BlackLivesMatter protests?",
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"passage": "Together, the nationwide efforts of Black women — as writers, organizers and activists — have shaped a national movement against state-sanctioned violence and anti-Black racism. The unfortunate outcome of the Breonna Taylor case shows just how much more work needs to be done. However, Black women will continue to lead the way forward, organizing against racial injustice and demanding radical changes in American policing.",
"passage_id": 7,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What role did women play in #EndSARS protests?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 118,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I like fashion and animals. What career options should I consider?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I like fashion and animals. What career options should I consider?",
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"passage": "The median salary for these workers was $46,146 at that time. What Are Some Related Alternative Careers? There are many different career paths in fashion that you could pursue aside from becoming a personal stylist. With a degree in fashion, fashion merchandising or a similar field, you may want to consider becoming a fashion designer. These professionals create clothes that are fitting with current fashion trends in order to appeal to consumers. Another option is to become a fashion sales representative or personal shopper, advising customers on clothes and helping them purchase outfits. Fashion sales representatives can enter the field without a degree, but gaining some formal education in fashion trends and history may be beneficial for higher-level positions. To continue researching, browse degree options below for course curriculum, prerequisites and financial aid information. Or, learn more about the subject by reading the related articles below:1. Degree Options: Fashion Design Dressmaking & Design Fashion Merchandising View All Degree Options2. More Articles What Training is Necessary to Become a Fashion Stylist?",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What career options should I consider?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Becoming a fashion designer sounds interesting. What's the job outlook?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Becoming a fashion designer sounds interesting. What's the job outlook?",
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"passage": "How Much Does a Fashion Designer Make Monthly? by Chris Newton; Updated September 26, 2017 Fashion design is an exciting career for creative people and people who have a passion for fashion, clothing and accessories. Monthly salaries for fashion designers vary widely, based on employer, experience, location and talent. Fashion designers search for inspiration to sketch, cut and sew fabrics into the next big trend in clothing. Designers might work for a clothing company or design firm, or might work independently and start their own company. According to the Fashion Designer Salary Data website, the average salary range for most fashion designers is between $50,000 and $80,000 a year, which equates to $4,167 and $6,667 a month. Most fashion designers earn about $65,000 annually, or $5,417 per month. Some designers earn considerably more, especially those who own their own successful fashion design company and design clothes for wealthy people and celebrities. They can easily make a few million dollars each year, or hundreds of thousands a month.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What's the job outlook for Becoming a fashion designer?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How can I get a degree in it?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How can I get a fashion design degree?",
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"passage": "The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported that a bachelor's degree related to fashion design is usually needed to gain an entry-level position in the industry ( www.bls.gov ). A common type of degree is the Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA), which may have a major in fashion or fashion design. You might also get to pursue a specialization, such as knitwear, intimate apparel, visual merchandising, textiles, special occasion wear or children's wear. BFA Program Requirements A BFA program in fashion or fashion design provides you with opportunities to study in-depth topics through electives or core curriculum, and studio courses give you hands-on experience. In addition to studying fashion, you might also take courses in business or merchandising. Although your chosen specialization can affect your program's curriculum requirements, common topics of study include the following:2-D and 3-D fashion design Fashion drawing Sewing techniques Art and fashion history Fashion color Textiles Fashion draping Before you graduate, you will usually create a portfolio and complete an internship.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can I get a degree in fashion design?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. What does the portfolio usually consist of?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. What does the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in fashion portfolio usually consist of?",
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"passage": "A typical type of a portfolio is one used by artists. An artist's portfolio consists of artwork that the artist can take to job interviews, conferences, galleries, and other networking opportunities to showcase his or her work, and give others an idea of what type of genre the artist works in. Art Portfolios, sometimes called \"artfolios\", can be a variety of sizes, and usually consist of approximately ten to twenty photographs of the artist's best works. Some artists create multiple portfolios to showcase different styles and to apply for different types of jobs. For instance, one portfolio may be mainly for doing technical illustrations and another may be for surreal painting or sculpture. Models and actors often use electronic portfolios to showcase their career with a digital display of their photos, biographies and skills. Talent portfolios can also include video. Animators typically use demo reels, also known as \"demo tapes\", in place of or in addition to portfolios to demonstrate their skills to potential employers. Demo tapes have historically been short VHS tapes, but most are now DVDs. Demo reels are normally less than two minutes in length and showcase some of the animator's best works.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. What does the portfolio usually consist of?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "What are the common entry requirements for the degree?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the common entry requirements for a Bachelor of Fine Arts program?",
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"passage": "Education & Training Required Fashion designers typically need an associate or a bachelor's degree in fashion design. Some fashion designers also combine a fashion design degree with a business, marketing, or fashion merchandising degree, especially those who want to run their own business or retail store. Basic coursework includes color, textiles, sewing and tailoring, pattern making, fashion history, computer-aided design (CAD), and design of different types of clothing such as menswear or footwear. Coursework in human anatomy, mathematics, and psychology also is useful. The National Association of Schools of Art and Design accredits approximately 300 postsecondary institutions with programs in art and design. Most of these schools award degrees in fashion design. Many schools do not allow formal entry into a program until a student has successfully completed basic art and design courses. Applicants usually have to submit sketches and other examples of their artistic ability. Aspiring fashion designers can learn these necessary skills through internships with design or manufacturing firms. Some designers also gain valuable experience working in retail stores, as personal stylists, or as custom tailors.",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the common entry requirements for the degree in fashion design?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "I’ll consider those. How about my options for my other interest?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’ll consider those. How about my career options for my other interest in animals?",
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"passage": "Teen Vogue indicates that aspiring fashion magazine journalists may want to study English or journalism, while those working with fashion photography may pursue design-related degrees. Fashion merchandising bachelor's degrees are another option for those aspiring to enter all fashion journalism fields. Because the job markets in the fashion and journalism industries can be competitive, you may want to pursue a college internship in your professional area of interest. Some journalism degree programs may offer concentrations in fashion or magazine writing; the latter may be appropriate for those aspiring to work for fashion magazines. If you pursue a degree in general journalism, one or several fashion writing classes are likely available to you. Some schools may also offer special seminars, clubs or other activities for journalism students interested in fashion. Fashion journalism courses or concentrations teach you about relevant general and journalism-specific concepts, such as visual merchandising, textiles, fashion marketing, event reporting, trend analysis and designer collection reviews. You also study basic journalism topics like news reporting, mass media and society magazine writing, opinion commentary, copyediting, promotional writing and media law.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How about my options for my other interest besides fashion design?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Not quite. I want to know about career opportunities related to animals.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Not quite. I want to know about career opportunities related to animals.",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1554519",
"passage": "Jobs Working with Animals: Career Options and Requirements Careers working with animals covers a broad spectrum of responsibilities and duties. Continue reading for an overview of the degree programs, certifications and training as well as career and salary info for some career options for graduates. Show Me Schools View 10 Popular Schools »Individuals who love animals may choose to pursue a career as a pet groomer, zoologist or veterinary technician. Pet groomers typically learn their skills through an apprenticeship, while veterinary technicians need to have an associate's degree. Zoologists must have a bachelor's degree to enter the field. Essential Information Many careers allow animal lovers to work closely with the objects of their affection. Requirements for employment vary. Animal caretaker requires only a high school diploma whereas a veterinarian or zoologist, require a post graduate degree for independent research. Some jobs working with animals can be obtained after completing a certificate or an associate degree program. Career Pet Groomer Zoologist Veterinary Technician Education Requirements Apprenticeships Bachelor's Degree Associate's Degree Other Requirements Workshops and certifications available Specialization of a specific species Pass state exam and obtain license Projected Job Growth (2014-2024)* 11% 4% 19%Median Salary (2015)* $21,010 $59,680 $31,800Source: *U.S",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I want to know about career opportunities related to animals."
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "How do I become a vet?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How do I become a veterinarian?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1020419",
"passage": "U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics, American Veterinary Medical Association job postings (August 2012), O*Net On Line According to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary for veterinarians in May 2015 was $88,490. To become a vet, a doctorate degree in veterinary medicine is required and you must pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Exam to earn licensure. There may be additional licensure requirements specific to each state. Employers may have different experience requirements. The keys skills you'll need in this career include critical thinking, complex problem solving, decision-making, speaking, and active listening. You'll also need proficiency with scientific software, and physical dexterity to use X-Ray, surgical and laboratory equipment. How to Become a Veterinarian Follow these steps to become a veterinarian: Step 1: Complete a Bachelor's Degree Program Most schools of veterinary medicine require or prefer applicants to have a bachelor's degree. While many students earn their degree in a biological science, most veterinary schools don't have a preferred major as long as certain science courses are taken.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do I become a vet?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "What are the other steps?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What are the other steps to become a veterinarian?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1020419",
"passage": "This exam measures a person's readiness for graduate-level studies. Step 2: Earn a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine Each successive year in a program of veterinary medicine builds upon the previous year's curriculum. The first year or two may focus on science subjects like animal anatomy and physiology, nutrition, and virology. These and related courses lay the basic framework for understanding veterinary medicine. Some courses might be specific to an animal group. The third year may focus on clinical studies in which students come in to contact with living animals and practice using the knowledge and skills they've gained in the previous two years to make diagnoses and recommend possible treatments. The fourth year is usually spent participating in applied experiences, such as practicums or externships. Get involved in research projects. Some programs offer students the opportunity to be involved in research while studying for their degree. This experience may be helpful in understanding certain aspects of the veterinary field and can open up opportunities to work in research rather than a clinical setting.",
"passage_id": 4,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the other steps to becoming a veterinarian besides completing a bachelor's degree program?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "I understand that licenses are required. Tell me more about that.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I understand that licenses are required to work as a veterinarian in the US. Tell me more about that.",
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"passage": "It's during veterinary school that many students decide to concentrate on becoming large animal vets, dealing with farm animals, such as horses and cows, or small animal vets, dealing with domestic pets, such as dogs and cats. Following graduation, some individuals choose to participate in a 1-year internship to fine-tune their veterinary skills and possibly secure more rapid advancement in the field. Licensure Requirements With the occasional exception of employment by federal or state governments, all states and the District of Columbia require newly graduated veterinarians to pass the North American Veterinary Licensing Examination, in order to practice. D. V. M. candidates must pass an examination on state laws and regulations governing the field of veterinary medicine. Most states require veterinarians to participate in continuing education dealing with newly discovered diseases and newly developed treatments in order to renew a vet's license on a regular basis. Because there is little reciprocity between states, as a general rule, veterinarians who move to a new state must pass that state's licensure examinations.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I understand that licenses are required for veterinary medicine. Tell me more about that."
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "What about a way to combine both of my interests?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What about a way to combine my interests in fashion and animals?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D942718",
"passage": "Research interests vary but may include veterinary surgery, pathology, pharmacology, immunology, and anatomy. Prior to choosing an area of specialization, students complete a series of laboratory rotations that introduce the various sub-specialties of veterinary science. Schools of veterinary medicine may offer fellowships for graduates of a combined DVM-Ph. D. program so that they can continue their research upon graduation. The DVM-Ph. D. degree is the terminal degree in the field of veterinary medicine and veterinary science. The DVM-Ph. D. curriculum combines general veterinary medicine coursework with classes that focus on aspects of veterinary science research methodology. Topics include: Veterinary anatomy Pathology Pharmacology Veterinary practice Immune system Animal care Popular Career Options Many graduates of a combined degree program in veterinary medicine secure employment with universities, government agencies, and biomedical research facilities. Possible careers include professor of veterinary medicine, veterinary medicine research scientist, and biomedical research scientist. Career Outlook and Salary Information Many graduates of a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program pursue careers as veterinarians.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about a way to combine both of my interests to become a veterinarian?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 119,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "My dog has been shaking and tilting its head a lot recently. What could be wrong?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "My dog has been shaking and tilting its head a lot recently. What could be wrong?",
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"passage": "This was cause for concern and we were going to check his ears when we got home. He kept shaking and shaking ... and then we saw an ant waltz out of his ear. There was our culprit. The shaking stopped. When an especially mean stray tick got on Jasmine's ear, her instinct was to shake her head. (Stray tick because it was one of the only two we ever found at the ranch.) The bite was painful for Jasmine though, so every time she started to shake her head she'd cry a little, stop and hold her head down, tilted towards the affected ear. This immediately alerted us to a problem and we found and removed the invader. When your dog starts shaking their head like that, examine the ears, eyes, head, neck and skin carefully. Pay particularly close attention to the ears. Some culprits are obvious and easy to deal with. Some require attention of your veterinarian. A common cause of head shaking is otitis, inflammation of the ear canal.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What could be wrong with my dog?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "I just checked and there’s swelling in the outer portion. What could it be?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I just checked my dog’s ears and there’s swelling in the outer portion. What could it be a symptom of?",
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"passage": "Home Swollen Ear Ear Care: Swollen Dog Ear Quick Links Overview Problems Infections Scratching Itching Swelling Treatment Reader & Vet Q&ACauses: The most common and famous reason amongst researchers for dog swollen ear is inflammation. Inflammation can occur for any reason such as infection, allergy, parasitic infestation, tumors or any injury. Inflammation is an acute (immediate) response of the body towards any pathological (disease) condition, thus swelling as a characteristic of inflammation may be the result of any dog ear problem. Another common cause of dog swollen ear is a hematoma. Canine ear hematoma refers to the accumulation of fluids and blood in between the skin and cartilage of the ear. Most of the time it occurs over the flap of the ear, but it may also occur in the inner cavities of the ear. Hematomas may cause inflammation as a secondary character, which means as a result of another condition. Hematomas are caused by any mechanical injury or vigorous head shakes, which are also related to the underlying ear problem.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What could the swelling in the outer portion of the ear canal be?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How dangerous could these be?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How dangerous could the inflammation or canine ear hematoma in my dog’s ears be?",
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"passage": "Each hospital is different though and you should talk with the veterinarians in your area. Hematomas don't just appear. There is a problem that caused it. The most common is an ear infection but it can also be rough play with another dog or trauma. If the hematoma reaches the base of the ear and you let it heal naturally it can close off the ear canal and condemn your dog to chronic and painful ear infections. If it is just at the tip then you are looking at an aesthetic change only and it's not as much of a concern. The cause of the hematoma still needs to be addressed though. The healing process can take anywhere from 2-12 weeks depending on if the dog keeps re-injuring it. Good luck to you and your pooch.23.9k Views · View Upvoters · Answer requested by Aubrey Brennan Your response is private. Is this answer still relevant and up to date? David Nichols, DVM SK'84.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How dangerous could dog hematomas be?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "I live in a remote area. How can I treat it at home?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I live in a remote area. How can I treat my dog’s ear infection at home?",
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"passage": "Instead of putting the vinegar in the dog’s ear, mix 2 tablespoons of it with a cup of water and have the dog drink it all. This can be repeated on a daily basis until the infection clears up. Garlic has also been found to be a good home remedy because of the herb’s antibiotic properties. One just needs to mash two cloves of garlic with a cup of olive oil and let it sit for two weeks. After two weeks, strain the mixture and warm it up a bit. Then place 2 to 3 drops of oil in the infected ear until the infection clears-up. This is a good remedy if a dog is prone to frequent infections because of the time it takes to make. However, if one does not have the premade solution on hand, oil from a garlic gel capsule can be used. If a dog’s ear infection does not seem to get better with the use of home remedies, consult a veterinarian (traditional or holistic).",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can I treat dog swollen ear at home?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "My cat is also having similar symptoms. Would that work for her as well?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "My cat is also having similar symptoms to my dog. Would the home remedy work for her as well?",
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"passage": "WARNING: Do not use this method if the ears are red and swollen or have any open wounds. Garlic and Olive Oil combined are great for treating ear mites. Crush garlic and soak it overnight in warm olive oil. Throw away the clove and warm up the olive oil. Add 5 drops to each ear for 21 days. This remedy also smothers the ear mites. My favorite is Aloe and Calendula essential oils. They are very soothing to the kitty’s ears and have worked wonders for getting rid of the ear mites. Both oils are available at your local health food store. Add several drops to the kitty’s ears once daily for 21 days. The oils have a healing effect so if your kitty has inflamed or painful ears, this will help. These are the best remedies for cats with ear mites and now you can choose the conventional or the holistic approach. Your cat will feel much better and she will love you for it.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can I treat dog swollen ear at home?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Thanks. I am also worried that they are susceptible to the coronavirus.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Thanks. I am also worried that my pets are susceptible to the coronavirus.",
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"passage": "Dear Heloise: With everything I've heard about the coronavirus, can my dog get it? — Jackie in Illinois Jackie in Illinois: Here is what the experts know now. While there have been some dogs affected by coronaviruses, this coronavirus (which causes the disease covid-19) is not thought to be a threat to dogs or cats. There’s no evidence that domestic pets play “a significant role in spreading the virus,” according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. You can pet your dog, walk your dog and play with your dog without worry of contracting the virus from the animal. “If a person inside the household becomes sick, isolate that person from everyone else, including pets,” the CDC recommends. Coronavirus is a respiratory virus that is spread primarily when infected people cough and sneeze submicroscopic droplets onto smooth surfaces or onto other people. No special precautions need to be taken with the dog; just practice normal hygiene. Check with your veterinarian for more information. P.S.: It is not necessary for your dog to wear a mask over his nose and mouth, although it does make quite a picture to post!",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I am also worried that cats are susceptible to the coronavirus."
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Okay, but I also heard that a few have been reported to be infected.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay, but I also heard that a few animals have been reported to be infected with the coronavirus.",
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"passage": "A pet dog in Hong Kong has a “low-level” infection of the coronavirus that causes covid-19 in people, in what may be the first known human-to-animal transmission of the novel coronavirus that has sickened more than 90,000 people worldwide. The case has raised the specter that dogs might be swept into the epidemic, which, even now, public health officials say does not appear to infect or be spread by pets. But experts say much remains unknown about the dog’s infection, and they emphasized the lone case is not yet cause for alarm or reassessments about interactions with pets. The dog is owned by a person who was hospitalized with covid-19, and it has been quarantined since Feb. 26, according to Hong Kong’s Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department. The department said last week that the dog’s “weak positive” test results, from nasal and oral swabs, might have been the result of “environmental contamination,” not infection. But positive tests since then suggest the dog does have a low-level of infection, the department said Wednesday.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I also heard that a few dogs have been reported to be infected with the coronavirus."
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "How can I protect them?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How can I protect my pets from the coronavirus?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3146913",
"passage": "Other risk factors may include: stress sanitation issues crowding in the home parasites Cats can also spread the coronavirus in their feces, nasal secretions, and oral secretions. The feline coronavirus can remain inactive and harmless in the home, but it is very easy to destroy the virus with regular cleaning habits. The feline coronavirus poses no threat to humans. How to Prevent the Feline Coronavirus and FIP While it is impossible to know which cats will develop the FIP condition after being infected with the coronavirus, there are several things pet owners can do to possibly prevent the coronavirus from occurring in the first place. Making sure your cat's healthy and has a strong immune system is important in preventing disease. Providing proper nutrition, exercise, and a low-stress environment is the best way to keep your pet healthy. Keeping cats overcrowded may increase stress, lower immunity, and may spread viruses easily, so it is best not to allow this to happen. Comments",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can I protect my dog from the coronavirus infection?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "Ok. But what about my dog?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Ok. But what about protecting my dog from the coronavirus?",
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"passage": "What is the management? As with canine Parvovirus, there is no specific treatment for canine Coronavirus. It is very important to keep the patient, especially puppies, from developing dehydration. Water must be force fed or specially prepared fluids can be administered under the skin (subcutaneously) and/or intravenously to prevent dehydration. Vaccines are available to protect puppies and adults of all ages against canine Coronavirus. In areas where canine Coronavirus is prevalent, dogs and puppies should remain current on Coronavirus vaccinations beginning at or about six weeks of age. Sanitation with commercial disinfectants is highly effective and should be practiced in breeding, grooming, kennel housing, and hospital situations.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about my dog?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 120,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "Why did Michael Jackson go so far to alter his appearance?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why did Michael Jackson go so far to alter his appearance?",
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"passage": "And as Steve Knopper’s excellent recent book, “MJ: The Genius of Michael Jackson,” suggests, that relationship was a great deal more complicated than any implication that Jackson wanted to be white. Jackson’s relationship to his skin was complicated from a young age, Knopper reports: The Jackson brothers teased each other mercilessly about their appearances. Michael’s nose was the source of his early nickname, as Jermaine’s acne was for him. The Jacksons had been subject to intense media scrutiny starting when they were very young and that meant Michael had to go through puberty in the public eye, a process that included media scrutiny of his blemishes. Nancy Leiviska, who worked with MTV, set Jermaine and Michael up with a dermatologist, and both Jacksons became vegetarians in an effort to fight acne through their diets. Michael would later have procedures to try to limit the appearance of his acne scars. Michael Jackson’s vexed relationship to his skin wasn’t only cosmetic, and it wasn’t only a response to media pressure.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why did Michael Jackson go so far to alter his appearance?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What else was it about?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What else was Michael Jackson’s vexed relationship to his skin about?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_d632d4f70ed00a4cd9b95f956960db25",
"passage": "In 1983, Arnold Klein, his dermatologist, observed not only that Jackson had vitiligo, the condition that would lead Jackson to bleach his skin, but also diagnosed Jackson with discoid lupus erythematosus. Later, Richard Strick, another dermatologist, “could see the disease had destroyed nose cartilage, which might have explained some of Michael’s plastic surgery.” That latter condition was one source of physical pain for Jackson; the next year would bring another. While filming a Pepsi commercial in 1984, Jackson was badly burned during the sixth take of the ad. He had to have skin grafts and balloons implanted in his scalp as part of his recovery. In an attempt to ease his ongoing discomfort, a plastic surgeon tried to eliminate some of Jackson’s scar tissue. “For this procedure, as well as Michael’s continuing struggles with discoid lupus and acne scarring— plus his continuing experiments with his nose, chin, and cheekbones— Klein and Debbie Rowe administered pain medication,” Knopper writes. “They were careful not to give too much, Rowe recalls.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "In addition to Michael Jackson altering his appearance, what else was Knopper’s book \"MJ: The Genius of Michael Jackson \" about?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. Did the diet help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Did the Jacksons vegetarian diet help to fight their acne?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D414983",
"passage": "43 males with acne, aged 15 to 25, were separated into two groups. For twelve weeks, one group ate a diet that was 25 percent protein and 45 percent low-glycemic carbohydrates. The other group ate carbs without any control of glycemic index, resulting in a higher glycemic diet. At the end of the study, the acne had decreased in the low-glycemic group by almost twice the rate of the high-glycemic group! ( 17)As part of the protocol to treat acne from the inside out, it’s important eat foods that don’t cause blood sugar spikes or increased inflammation. Here are tips for following a acne-free diet: Focus on eating lots of leafy green vegetables, berries and clean protein. Increase consumption of wild fish, grass-fed meat and cage-free chickens. Healthy fats are essential to good skin health and treating acne breakouts at home, so include foods rich in omega-3s like wild-caught salmon. Add zinc-rich foods such as kefir, yogurt, lamb, pumpkin seeds and chicken.",
"passage_id": 21,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Did the diet help Michael Jackson fight acne scarring?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "Never mind. Tell me more about the Pepsi commercial.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Never mind. Tell me more about the Pepsi commercial where Michael Jackson burned his skin.",
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"passage": "It turned out the singer had suffered third-degree burns to his scalp. In the short term, Pepsi made a $1.5million compensation payment, which Jackson donated to a Californian medical centre, who later named a burns treatment wing in his honour. Footage taken at the time reveals the harsh nature of the burn, with Jackson's scalp still glowing In the long term, it was this fateful day that was later cited as the turning point in Jackson's rollercoaster life. Although it was not discussed publicly for many years, it was later reported during the trial into Doctor Conrad Murray's involvement in his death, that Jackson had suffered so much from the burns that he became addicted to medication to ease the pain on his scalp, and to help him sleep. Michael Jackson photographed on his way to hospital following the accident From that time, it was a relentless decline to his dependence on a catalogue of medicines, both prescribed drugs and other potions, that ultimately led to his death in July 2009.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did the Pepsi commercial do for Michael Jackson?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "How so?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did Michael Jackson’s dependence on medicine lead to his death?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_5d9f74ee-3181-11e6-8758-d58e76e11b12",
"passage": "According to the book, initially published last year in Britain, the singer was in such pain that he took Percocet, Darvocet and, during his subsequent scalp treatments, large amounts of Demerol, all of which kick-started decades of dependence on narcotics. That dependence, coupled with financial difficulties that would compel him to agree to a demanding string of performances in London in 2009, set the table for Jackson to become more reliant on Murray, a doctor facing his own money troubles. “Dr. Conrad Murray was not, nor ever would have been, suited to be the caretaker of a complicated patient like Michael Jackson,” the authors state. “And from the moment they met, their fate was sealed.” “83 Minutes” returns often to this idea that Jackson’s demise was inevitable, not only because of Murray’s negligence, but also because of previous doctors who accommodated Jackson’s desire for propofol and other drugs, and Jackson himself, who apparently considered himself immune to the risks. Even though followers of the Murray case and fans of Jackson may be aware of many of the details outlined in “83 Minutes,” revisiting all the pieces of the puzzle in a single volume has a powerful narrative effect.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did Michael Jackson depend on drugs and other potions to ease the pain on his scalp?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. How did it affect his art and legacy?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. How did Michael Jackson’s skin conditions affect his art and legacy?",
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"passage": "Many idolized him because of his energetic performances on stage and upbeat songs. But little did people know he had Vitiligo. When Michael was on stage, he occasionally wore outfits that covered parts of his skin and wore make up. People thought this was just a stage gimmick but the fact was Michael had to conceal the white patches on his skin. During his performances Michael would appear on stage or on videos showing only some parts of his body that were not affected. Whenever he went out, he usually shielded himself from sunlight to protect his skin. As years past by, Michael’s skin just became lighter and lighter in color. The treatments that he underwent contributed to the discoloration of his skin. Michael only revealed his condition in 1993 during an interview with Oprah Winfrey that he had Vitiligo. He explained his condition about the whitening of his skin. People initially thought he was bleaching his skin to make it whiter. Michael Jackson did not intentionally want to have his skin turn to white.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. How did the burns affect Michael Jackson art and legacy?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 121,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I remember there was a global coffee shortage some time ago. Can you tell me more about that?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I remember there was a global coffee shortage some time ago. Can you tell me more about that?",
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"passage": "Usually during this time of year, the delicate Arabica coffee plants in the mountains of Brazil, where most of the world's coffee comes from, are maturing. White, fragrant flowers have appeared, followed by cherry-like fruit, each containing two seeds: Arabica coffee beans, the most popular in the world. But last month, the worst drought in decades hit Brazil's coffee belt region, destroying crop yields and causing the price of coffee to shoot up by more than 50 percent so far this year. The drought is historic, with more than 140 cities in Brazil forced to ration water. The country's leading newspapers reported that some neighborhoods are receiving water only every three days. For now, retail prices for coffee are stable. Roasters typically have enough supplies to cover themselves for a few months. But if the price of the Arabica (pronounced uh-RAB-ick-uh) beans continues to rise, consumers could start seeing the cost of their morning coffee creep up later this year, according to Jack Scoville, a futures market analyst specializing in grains and coffee, among other commodities.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me more about the global coffee shortage?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What caused the drought?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What caused the drought in Brazil’s coffee belt region?",
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"passage": "Deforestation causing São Paulo drought Written by Chris Fitch Published in Cities Deforestation near São Paulo, Brazil AFNR05 Feb 2015Brazil possesses 12 per cent of the world’s freshwater, and yet São Paulo – the biggest and richest city in South America – is suffering from severe drought with deforestation getting the blame Water rationing. Power cuts. Crop slumps. The past twelve months has seen Brazil being hit harder and harder by the effects of drought, as first São Paulo, then other regions of the country, struggle to cope with dwindling supplies of water but an immense demand. Local reservoirs are running at historic lows, such as the Cantareira system – which supplies water to over a quarter of the 20 million São Paulo residents and is currently down to only five per cent of its 264 billion gallon capacity. A ‘five-days-off, two-days-on’ rationing system is currently being proposed as a solution to prevent the reservoir running completely dry. The proposed reasons for the drought are plentiful.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What caused the drought in Brazil last month?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "I also heard that other Latin American countries had coffee production issues. Was the disruption widespread?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I also heard that other Latin American countries had coffee production issues. Was the disruption due to the drought widespread?",
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"passage": "The U.S. government is stepping up efforts to help Central American farmers fight a devastating coffee disease — and hold down the price of your morning cup. At issue is a fungus called coffee rust that has caused more than $1 billion in damage across the Latin American region. The fungus is especially deadly to Arabica coffee, the bean that makes up most high-end coffees. It is affecting the price of some of those coffees in the United States. “We are concerned because we know coffee rust is already causing massive amounts of devastation,” said Raj Shah, head of the U.S. Agency for International Development. On Monday, he was expected to announce a $5 million partnership with Texas A&M University’s World Coffee Research center to try to eliminate the fungus. But the government is not doing this just to protect $4-a-cup specialty coffees, much as Americans love them. The chief concern is about the economic security of small farms abroad. If farmers lose their jobs, it increases hunger and poverty in the region and contributes to violence and drug trafficking.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Was the disruption of coffee production in other Latin American countries widespread?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "It sounds like they are not related. What are its origins? And how did it spread?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "It sounds like the reduction in coffee production in Latin America and the drought in Brazil are not related. What are the origins of coffee rust? And how did it spread?",
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"passage": "Hemileia vastatrix Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations. Coffee serves as the obligate host of coffee rust, that is, the rust must have access to and come into physical contact with coffee (\"Coffea sp.\") in order to survive. There is no cure at the moment, although farms have managed to reduce their impact by replanting infected farms with hybrids that have a strong genetic resistance to rust. Section::::Appearance. The mycelium with uredinia looks yellow-orange and powdery, and appears on the underside of leaves as points ~0.1 mm in diameter. Young lesions appear as chlorotic or pale yellow spots some millimetres in diameter, the older being a few centimetres in diameter. Hyphae are club-shaped with tips bearing numerous pedicels on which clusters of urediniospores are produced. Telia are pale yellowish, teliospores often produced in uredinia; teliospores more or less spherical to limoniform, 26–40 × 20–30 µm in diameter, wall hyaline to yellowish, smooth, 1 µm thick, thicker at the apex, pedicel hyaline.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are the origins of coffee rust in Brazil? And how did it spread?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. The US government tried to help the situation. What did they do to help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. The US government tried to help eliminate the fungus in order to prevent the economic situation of Latin American countries from deteriorating. What did they do to help?",
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"passage": "The Washington region will get some professional counseling in hopes of improving its paltry performance in selling its goods and services abroad. The Global Cities Initiative, a joint project of the Brookings Institution and JPMorgan Chase, will oversee an in-depth study to help the area figure out how to boost exports to offset some of the economic pain caused by the slowdown in federal spending. A coalition of three regional organizations — representing government, businesses and universities — asked for the help by applying to join the initiative. They did so because the Washington area, despite including a major world capital, is near the bottom of the heap when it comes to doing business overseas. Among the nation’s 100 largest metropolitan areas, Washington ranks 98th in the share of its economic activity fueled by exports, according to Brookings. That contributed to the region’s weak economic growth rate from 2010 to 2014, which ranked 93rd. Greater Washington’s entry in the initiative was perhaps the most significant of a series of recent efforts to foster increased cooperation among the District, Northern Virginia and the Maryland suburbs in response to the federal spending cuts known as sequestration.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did the US government do to help So Paulo?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "No, I want to know what they did to help with the coffee rust epidemic in Latin America.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "No, I want to know what the United States did to help with the coffee rust epidemic in Latin America.",
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"passage": "And even when it does, it might be struck by the rust fungus as well. As a solution, scientists are currently looking for and breeding rust-resistant coffee varieties (USAID recently donated $5 million towards this goal). Still, there are even reasons to think that these efforts will be futile. \"\"Coffee doesn't have a very broad genetic base,\"\"Lombardini says. \"\"It originated from just a few plants that were taken out of Ethiopia a few hundred years ago, so it has a very narrow, homogenous genome. \"\"This means that finding variations that might allow for rust-resistance will be difficult. Even if they're identified, a mutation in the fungus' genome could easily allow it to conquer the resistant plants. \"\" My worry is that producers will over-plant this variety and when the inevitable mutant rust strain capable of infecting it arrives, we will be back to where we are now,\"\" Arneson says. And even apart from coffee rust, there are other long-term trends that suggest coffee prices will just continue rising.",
"passage_id": 7,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did the Greater Washington initiative do to help with the coffee rust epidemic in Latin America?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. What did big coffee companies do? How did they try to help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. What did big coffee companies do? How did they try to help with the coffee rust epidemic?",
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"passage": "Still, the companies are trying to ensure their future supply is not affected, so they are working closely with growers on better practices that will help them avoid contamination. “Supporting the farmer’s ability to access information, technology and resources allows them to adapt to these uncertainties and ensures the longevity of our industry’s supply chain,” said Craig Russell, Starbucks Global Coffee executive vice president. Starbucks even bought a Costa Rican farm for research purposes. USAID intends to work with Texas A&M to step up research on rust-resistant coffee varieties and help Latin America better monitor and respond to the fungus. The United States already collaborates with some of the coffee companies and other international organizations to finance replanting of different varieties of trees. The effort is part of the Obama administration’s Feed the Future program, which aims to help rid the world of extreme poverty through agricultural development and improved nutrition. While the effort has helped hungry children around the globe, “we’re at risk of backtracking because of coffee rust,” Shah says.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did big coffee companies do to help with the global coffee rust epidemic?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "How did all these affect global consumption?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did the drought in Brazil and the coffee rust disease in Latin America affect global coffee consumption?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2622730",
"passage": "When other commodities get expensive, usage can be curtailed — if corn prices went up significantly, for example, Coke might use sugar or another sweetener instead of high-fructose corn syrup in its beverages. The reduced demand for corn helps slow the increase in the cost of it. this years' El niño could bring drought to coffee-growing countries in central america For the most part, coffee doesn't work this way. An estimated54 percent of American adults drink coffee every day, and tea won't suffice. Coffee is an exotic plant that can only be grown in very specific ecosystems thousands of miles away, but we've come to see it as a daily staple, and many Americans who depend on drinking it will do so regardless of price increases. There are also longer-term problems that might cause coffee prices to continue rising in the coming years. One is that substantial solutions to the problems of drought and coffee rust take time. Unlike say, corn, planting more coffee during the next growing season won't mean more beans are available at the next harvest — it takes several years for a coffee plant to reach maturity.",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did rust affect global consumption?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "That’s interesting, consumption is not very elastic. Would investing in it make sense?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That’s interesting, coffee consumption is not very elastic. Would investing in coffee make sense?",
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"passage": "(Source: Grand View Research Inc.) The global Coffee market has more than $175 billion in consumption value per year and generates tens of billions of dollars in profits for investors, and millions of jobs in developed nations. Costa Rica Pop 4,301,712 people. The United States and Costa Rica are parties to the U. S.-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), which aims to facilitate trade and investment and further regional integration by eliminating tariffs, opening markets, reducing barriers to services, and promoting transparency. Costa Rica accounts for 2.6% of world production of coffee and 20% of Central American production. Coffee Leaf Rust Pilot Test On February 15, 2016, a Pilot Test of CR-10, a specific formulation of Biono PLUS created to prevent, control and kill Coffee Rust, was launched in cooperation with Coope Agri R. L. in San Isidro del General, Perez Zeledon, Costa Rica. The Cooperative consists of 14,000 members, with an interest in 14,000 hectares of coffee plantations—all of which are affected by coffee rust.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Would investing in rust-resistant coffee varieties make sense?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 122,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I heard Bernie Sanders was ill recently. What happened?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I heard Bernie Sanders was ill recently. What happened?",
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"passage": "Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), who suffered a heart attack in October and is the oldest major candidate for president in 2020, released information from three of his doctors Monday saying that he sustained “modest heart muscle damage” but is in good health and capable of doing the job. “At this point, I see no reason he cannot continue campaigning without limitation and, should he be elected, I am confident he has the mental and physical stamina to fully undertake the rigors of the presidency,” Martin M. LeWinter, attending cardiologist at the University of Vermont Medical Center, wrote in a letter dated Dec. 30. The senator has made an “uneventful recovery” from his heart attack, LeWinter said, adding that Sanders has been taking several medications routinely prescribed after heart attacks. “While he did suffer modest heart muscle damage, he has been doing very well since,” LeWinter wrote. LeWinter’s letter was one of three provided by the Sanders campaign, which had said it would release the candidate’s health records by the end of the year.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "I heard Bernie Sanders was ill recently. What happened?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What did the doctors do?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What did the doctors do to treat Bernie Sanders when he had a heart attack?",
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"passage": "Democratic presidential candidate Bernie Sanders underwent a heart procedure after experiencing chest pains at an event, his campaign said Wednesday. Sanders felt “chest discomfort” Tuesday night at a campaign event, campaign aides said in a statement. Doctors evaluated him, found a blockage in one artery and inserted two stents. The medical problem Sanders experienced — though it can be serious if untreated — is a common affliction in men his age. And the procedure he underwent is one of the most routine performed by cardiologists. “This is a common procedure. It’s very safe. People recover quickly,” said Steven Nissen, chair of cardiovascular medicine at Cleveland Clinic. “I’ve treated businessmen who go back to work the next day. I’ve had patients in the U.S. Senate who have gotten right back to work. Although, if Bernie were my patient, I might tell him not to work 16 hours a day for a little while, just to make sure recovery goes well.” Coronary arteries — arteries that feed blood to the heart muscle — can become blocked over time with the buildup of fatty deposits or plaque.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did the doctors do to Sen. Bernie Sanders?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "How did it affect the campaign?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did the heart attack affect Bernie Sanders’ presidential campaign?",
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"passage": "Sen. Bernie Sanders’s admission late Friday that he had suffered a heart attack three days earlier invited new scrutiny of the presidential candidate’s age, health and ability to keep up with the rigors of a national campaign. Sanders released a video hours after he was discharged from a Las Vegas hospital, thanking well-wishers for their support and promising to return “soon” to the campaign trail. “I’m feeling so much better,” Sanders said, his arm draped around his wife, Jane. But neither Sanders (I-Vt.) nor his campaign offered details about how serious his condition was, leaving open the question of how soon he would reemerge and whether voters would lose confidence in his ability to serve as president. The episode also brought new attention to a Democratic field that is dominated by three septuagenarians: Sanders, 78; former vice president Joe Biden, 76; and Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.), 70 — each of whom would be the oldest president ever to take office. “I think anybody’s health is of concern when it comes to that high office,” said Jeremy Dumkrieger, chairman of the Woodbury County, Iowa, Democratic Party, who supported Sanders in 2016 but is neutral so far this year.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did the stroke affect Bernie Sanders’ campaign?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "How did he attempt to regain the public's confidence?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How did Bernie Sanders attempt to regain the public's confidence after recovering from his heart attack?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_QHK7ZXBLFMI6VPGUERMXSUAAR4",
"passage": "Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.), who suffered a heart attack in October and is the oldest major candidate for president in 2020, released information from three of his doctors Monday saying that he sustained “modest heart muscle damage” but is in good health and capable of doing the job. “At this point, I see no reason he cannot continue campaigning without limitation and, should he be elected, I am confident he has the mental and physical stamina to fully undertake the rigors of the presidency,” Martin M. LeWinter, attending cardiologist at the University of Vermont Medical Center, wrote in a letter dated Dec. 30. The senator has made an “uneventful recovery” from his heart attack, LeWinter said, adding that Sanders has been taking several medications routinely prescribed after heart attacks. “While he did suffer modest heart muscle damage, he has been doing very well since,” LeWinter wrote. LeWinter’s letter was one of three provided by the Sanders campaign, which had said it would release the candidate’s health records by the end of the year.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How did Sen. Bernie Sanders attempt to regain the public's confidence after suffering a heart attack?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. What did the records say?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. What did Bernie Sanders’ health records released after his heart attack say?",
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"passage": "Bernie Sanders has done something unusual for him: He changed his mind. While in most cases that’s a good thing (I have come out in favor of flip-flopping), this time it’s getting Sanders into trouble, because what he changed his mind about is releasing his medical records. But before you get too up in arms, we should realize that this issue is less clear-cut than it looks. In a CNN town hall on Tuesday night, Sanders was asked if he would release his full medical records, which he said last year that he would do. He has released three letters, from his cardiologists in Vermont and the congressional physician, providing some details of his current health status and prior history. But now, when asked if he’ll be releasing more records, Sanders answered, “I don’t think we will.” Then his spokesperson went on TV and seemed to compare the request for medical records to the racist “birther” campaign against Barack Obama, saying this is reminiscent of “smear” campaigns against other candidates, “questioning where they’re from, their lineage.” That didn’t help.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What did the records of Sen. Bernie Sanders say?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Okay, I'd like to know more about his decision.",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. I'd like to know more about Bernie Sanders' decision not to release his medical records after his heart attack.",
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"passage": "Sanders, who has committed to releasing his medical records before the first primary votes but has not yet done so, said Tuesday he would provide the information at “the appropriate time.” Former vice president Joe Biden and Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D-Mass.) — fellow septuagenarians who join Sanders at the top of most polls — have also committed to releasing their medical records. Sanders met reporters outside his Burlington home where he has spent the past few days with family, making calls and recovering from a heart attack he suffered during a grass roots fundraising event in Las Vegas last week. The 78-year-old felt chest pains last Tuesday night and was taken to a hospital, where doctors inserted two stents into a blocked artery. By Monday, he was back in Burlington, taking a walk with his wife, Jane, and addressing his campaign on a staff-wide conference call. The campaign had not initially disclosed that Sanders had suffered a heart attack, acknowledging at first only that the stents had been implanted.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay, I'd like to know more about Bernie Sanders'decision to release his medical records."
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "What about the other candidates? Did they release theirs?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What about the other Democratic presidential candidates, did they release their health records?",
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"passage": "The Democratic presidential candidates have been sparring over whether Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) has been adequately forthcoming about his medical records. At a debate in Las Vegas this month, former South Bend, Ind., mayor Pete Buttigieg said Sanders needs to disclose “full medical records, do a physical, and release the readout.” The Sanders campaign says demanding greater detail on Sanders’s health resembles “the kind of smear” that demands for Barack Obama’s birth certificate represented. It’s easy to understand why Sanders is not eager to release more of his health history. He’s a 78-year-old who weighs 179 pounds and recently had a heart attack. And he’s not the only one. Of the major Democratic candidates, only Sen. Elizabeth Warren (Mass.), former vice president Joe Biden and Sen. Amy Klobuchar (Minn.) have released comprehensive medical reports. Of course, President Trump as a candidate famously released — in lieu of his physical — a letter from a doctor declaring that “if elected, Mr. Trump, I can state unequivocally, will be the healthiest individual ever elected to the presidency” — a letter it later emerged that Trump had dictated himself.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about the other candidates besides Bernie Sanders? Did they release theirs?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "Should there be an age limit on the presidency?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Should there be an age limit on the presidency of the United States?",
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"passage": "Former president Jimmy Carter expressed doubt Tuesday night that he would have been able to handle the presidency at age 80, saying the job requires being “very flexible with your mind” and suggesting that there should be an age limit. Carter did not mention any of the current presidential candidates in his comments, but two leading Democratic contenders — former vice president Joe Biden and Sen. Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) — would turn 80 while in office if elected. Question’s about Biden’s age and mental acuity, in particular, have become part of the conversation in the Democratic nominating process. He is currently 76, while Sanders is 78. Carter, who turns 95 next month, was asked during an event at the Carter Center in Atlanta what it would take for him to run for president again. The questioner noted that Grover Cleveland had served two nonconsecutive terms in the late 19th century. “I hope there’s an age limit,” Carter said with a big grin as he sat next to his wife, Rosalynn Carter.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Should there be an age limit on the presidency for Sanders?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 123,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I'm about to become a dad and I want to get fit before it gets too hard. How do I get started?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I'm about to become a dad and I want to get fit before it gets too hard. How do I get started?",
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"passage": "Watching a video of my daughter, I catch myself in the background and think, Ugh, you’re moving like him already? I worry that my daughter will someday wish I’d work the burger line at the team picnic rather than make her cringe by joining in the game. This anxiety isn’t just mine. In the time I’ve been alive, the average age for becoming a father in America has climbed 3 1 / 2 years, to 30.9, and higher for the college-educated. But that doesn’t mean we’re older versions of our dads. Just as the boomers who came after my dad discovered jogging and yoga and aerobics, my generation of parents has found its own approach to fitness. We’re the ones who entered adulthood — and who now approach middle age — not just clinging to shreds of our athletic identity but fully expecting that our best physical years are still ahead of us. It’s us driving the growth of high-intensity exercise chains like CrossFit and Orangetheory.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do I get started as a dad?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. Should I try CrossFit?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Should I try CrossFit to get fit?",
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"passage": "It seems as though nearly everyone who has heard of CrossFit has an opinion about it — even people who have never tried it. Aficionados claim that this brand of high-intensity workouts is a fast and fun way to get fit. Critics say that it’s a fast track to injury. CrossFit workouts mix weightlifting exercises, gymnastics and cardio activities such as jump rope and rowing into short, intense combinations that change daily. A typical “workout of the day” (WOD) might consist of running 400 meters, then doing 21 kettlebell swings and 12 pull-ups before repeating this sequence two more times. One recent WOD gave participants 20 minutes to complete as many rounds as possible of 10 push-ups, 20 pull-ups and 30 lunges. Besides the intensity factor, what distinguishes CrossFit from other gym-based workouts is its constantly changing exercises and emphasis on moves — bending and squatting, for example — that are functional in everyday life, says Russell Berger, a head trainer for CrossFit Inc. Rather than training people to become very good at a few exercises, CrossFit prompts them to do things that people do in real life, such as getting up and raising things off the ground, Berger says.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. Should I try CrossFit?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "That sounds very intense but useful for me. How does it compare with just weightlifting?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That sounds very intense but useful to me. How does CrossFit compare with just weightlifting to get fit?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_11568969",
"passage": "The paper states that CrossFit participants “are more likely to be injured and to seek medical treatment compared with participants in traditional weightlifting”, a finding that CrossFit, Inc. claimed to be based on scientific errors and material from retracted or mis-represented studies. Section::::Criticism.:Exertional rhabdomyolysis. The relationship between CrossFit and exertional rhabdomyolysis has been a subject of controversy for the company. Some medical professionals have asserted that both the CrossFit methodology and the environment created by CrossFit trainers put athletes at high risk for developing rhabdomyolysis. A man successfully sued his uncertified CrossFit trainers and was awarded US$300,000 in damages, after he suffered from rhabdomyolysis after performing a CrossFit workout on December 11, 2005, at Manassas World Gym in Manassas, Virginia, under the said trainers' supervision. CrossFit, Inc. was not listed as a defendant in the lawsuit. CrossFit, Inc. does not dispute that its methodology has the potential to cause rhabdomyolysis. The company states that exertional rhabdomyolysis can be found in a wide variety of sports and training populations and argues that its critics have conflated CrossFit's high awareness of rhabdomyolysis with high risk.",
"passage_id": 10,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do CrossFit workouts compare with just weightlifting?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "I would rather be safe. Do the positives outweigh the negatives?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I would rather be safe. Do the positives of Crossfit outweigh the negatives?",
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"passage": "There’s a kind of dedication, a gleam in the eye that many don’t find in a weekly Zumba class. Many CrossFitters have embraced the criticism. A CrossFit box in Connecticut calls itself “CrossFit Religion” with the motto “In WOD we Trust,” referring to the Workout of the Day that is the foundation of the practice of CrossFit. But J.C. Herz, author of “Learning to Breathe Fire: The Rise of CrossFit and the Primal Future of Fitness,” says that she would class CrossFit as “spiritual but not religious,” similar to yoga. But while many yoga instructors tend to focus more on calming the mind and body, Herz says that CrossFit is spiritual in that every workout asks you to dig deeply. In an age where many are opting out of organized religion, CrossFit provides a rare place of community and holistic transformation. It may not be religious institutionally, but CrossFit does a better job than many religious communities in transforming people’s lives. It may seem strange for what is essentially a fitness program, but CrossFit involves an identity shift that carries over into life well beyond the gym.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Do the positives outweigh the negatives of CrossFit?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "I’ve got four weeks. What about cardio?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’ve got four weeks. What about cardio for getting fit?",
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"passage": "Conclusion Any exercise is bad for you if you overdo it. You can beat yourself into the ground with weight training just as well as with cardio. To borrow a famous phrase, you could do chronic Crossfit just as easily as chronic cardio – and it would be just as dangerous. But it’s time to separate cardio from the “more is better” philosophy. More is not better, but there’s a way to enjoy cardiovascular exercise without compromising your recovery or health!Again, this doesn’t mean that cardio is healthy for everyone, or that it’s required for physical fitness. Every person has a different body type, and different body types are naturally better suited to different exercises. Some people do not do well with cardio, and that’s perfectly fine: just don’t do it. The point of this article isn’t to push cardio on people whose bodies don’t respond to it; it’s to point out that some of us are built more for distance work, and that’s OK, too.",
"passage_id": 15,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about cardio in CrossFit?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. What role will diet play?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. What role will diet play in getting fit?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2583411",
"passage": "Intense exercise triggers this process. Your body will be working overtime - even after you are done exercising - to replace this lost energy which will result in more calories burned. The body adapts under intensity so the harder you push yourself the more your body adapts to being able to function at higher intensities. Ease into it working up to going “all out” and increasing the number of intervals you do. Mix it up with longer (60 sec. to 5 min.) and shorter (20-60 sec.) intervals - followed by a short recovery period (half the duration of the intense time)Interval training will work as long as you are supporting it with good nutrition. Choosing meals full of fruits, vegetables, lean proteins and healthy fats. Split your meals into six smaller meals spread throughout the day to increase your metabolism. Remember to eat before you exercise - eating before training gives your body the ability to exercise harder. Make sure to eat something that is easily digested and nutritious about half an hour before you exercise.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What role will diet play in reducing rhabdomyolysis?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "What other meal frequencies can I try?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What other meal frequencies can I try to boost my metabolism?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3393850",
"passage": "Intermittent fasting allows the body to use fat as it’s primary source of energy instead of sugar. Many athletes now use fasting as means to hitting low body fat percentages for competitions.2. Fasting Improves Insulin Sensitivity Fasting has shown to have a positive effect on insulin sensitivity, allowing you to tolerate carbohydrates (sugar) better than if you didn’t fast. A study showed that after periods of fasting, insulin becomes more effective in telling cells to take up glucose from blood.3. Fasting Speeds Up The Metabolism Intermittent fasting gives your digestive system a rest, and this can energise your metabolism to burn through calories more efficiently. If your digestion is poor, this can effect your ability to metabolise food and burn fat. Intermittent fasts can regulate your digestion and promote healthy bowel function, thus improving your metabolic function.4. Fasting Promotes Longevity Believe it or not, the less you eat the longer you will live. Studies have shown how the lifespan of people in certain cultures increased due to their diets.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What other meal frequencies can I try besides eating before you exercise?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "Which one’s better?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Which one’s better between eating six meals a day and intermittent fasting?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D429473",
"passage": "It’s one less decision you have to make every day. It could allow you to enjoy bigger portioned meals (thus making your tastebuds and stomach satiated) and STILL eat fewer calories on average. It requires less time (and potentially less money). Rather than having to prepare or purchase three to six meals a day, you only need to prepare two meals. Instead of stopping what you’re doing six times a day to eat, you simply only have to stop to eat twice. Rather than having to do the dishes six times, you only have to do them twice. Rather than having to purchase six meals a day, you only need to purchase two. It promotes stronger insulin sensitivity and increased growth hormone secretion, two keys for weight loss and muscle gain. Intermittent fasting helps you create a double whammy for weight loss and building a solid physique. It can level up your brain, including positively counteracting conditions like Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and dementia. As explained here in this TEDx talk by Mark Mattson, Professor at Johns Hopkins University and Chief of the Laboratory of Neurosciences at the National Institute on Aging fasting is grounded in serious research and more studies are coming out showing the benefits: Why fasting bolsters brain power: Mark Mattson at TEDx Johns Hopkins University Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available.",
"passage_id": 15,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Which of the following is better for you?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. I would eventually like to spend time with my baby while working out too. Do you have any ideas for that?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. I would eventually like to spend time with my baby while working out too. Do you have any ideas for that?",
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"passage": "If you have never played with baby on an exercise ball and are nervous and them falling off, then it can be a good idea to start out with two grown-ups helping baby just in case. Always make sure you keep two hands on baby while on the ball, and stabilize the ball between your legs if you can to prevent any accidental slips). Learn more about how to play with baby on an exercise ball to support the development of crawling, plus watch a demo of how to safely play with your older baby on an exercise ball.4. Offer play time on a slightly squishy surface. You would think this would make things harder, but there’s something about the “give” of a slightly squishy surface that can actually make it easier for babies to experiment with crawling movements on hands and knees. When our first baby was a pre-crawler, we had a couch that had extremely firm cushions. They were not comfortable for relaxation purposes, but they were perfect for play time, especially because they turned the couch into the perfect height as a slightly elevated surface for the hands.",
"passage_id": 18,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Do you have any ideas for spending time with my baby while working out?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 124,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I just watched the first Jurassic Park movie and I got interested in dinosaurs and their time on earth. Can you tell me about the time when dinosaurs actually existed?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I just watched the Jurassic Park movie and I got interested in dinosaurs. Can you tell me about the time when dinosaurs actually existed?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3321299",
"passage": "When Were Dinosaurs Alive? Discover the Mesozoic Era In this article, we ask ‘When were dinosaurs alive?’ and explore the different periods of the Mesozoic Era. This article is part of our Dinosaur Facts series. When Were Dinosaurs Alive? Dinosaurs first appeared between 243 and 231 million years ago. This was during the Triassic period, which is part of the ‘geological timescale’. We’ll take a closer look at the geological timescale further down the page. Dinosaurs lived on Earth for many millions of years. In fact, they were alive right up to the end of the Cretaceous period, around 66 million years ago. This means that dinosaurs were alive for as long as 177 million years, for much of the Triassic period, and for all of the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods. A simple dinosaur timescale at the end of this article shows when dinosaurs were alive. Geological Timescale You’ve probably heard of the Jurassic period – or at least the word ‘Jurassic’ – from the Jurassic Park films (which starred a T Rex, which was, er, from the Cretaceous period).",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me about the time when dinosaurs actually existed?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Hmm. What else was characteristic about that era?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Hmm. What else was characteristic about the Mesozoic Era asides the existence of Dinosaurs?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1351440",
"passage": "\"Mesozoic Era (245 to 65 mya)One of the most striking events in the Mesozoic Era was the rise to dominance of dinosaurs in terrestrial ecosystems. The Mesozoic lasted from 245 to 65 million years ago, and is divided into three periods. The Mesozoic, which derives its name from the Greek with a rough meaning of middle animals, began after the Permian extinction and ended with the Cretaceous extinction. It comprises the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods. The Mesozoic is most famed for the Dinosaurs, and popular lexicon considers it the Age of the Dinosaurs (or Reptiles). The dinosaurs together with reptiles of all sizes ranging from the gigantic to the merely intimidating by human size standards, dominated the terrestrial environments. The flowering plants, or angiosperms, appeared in the Mesozoic. Importantly, by the end of the Mesozoic, the body plans and corresponding genetic developmental blueprints that define modern life forms were in place, although mammalian avian forms were still quite primitive. The fossil record supports a theory of plate tectonics now widely accepted.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What else was characteristic about the Mesozoic Era besides dinosaurs living up to the end of the Cretaceous period?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Can you tell me more about the fossil records and the theory?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me more about the fossil records and the theory of plate tectonics?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D285835",
"passage": "This theory is much better at explaining certain geological events and patterns observed in terms of eg mountain ranges and deep ocean trenches. There were features of the Earth's geology and fossil record which could not be explained e.g. Similar fossils of extinct plants and animals were found on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean* *It had been suggested that these continents were once linked by land bridges that had sunk, or washed away or just covered in water as the Earth cooled and contracted and sea levels rose. Also, the fact that geographically the continent of Africa seem to fit quite neatly into the shore line of the South America continent. PLATE TECTONICS THEORY: The Earth's lithosphere (the crust and the upper part of the mantle) is cracked into a number of large pieces called tectonic plates, you can think of them as giant rock rafts floating on the 'plastic' mantle. These plates (like big rock rafts) are less dense than the mantle and so float on it and constantly move at relative speeds of a few centimetres per year as a result of convection currents within the Earth's mantle.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Can you tell me more about the fossil records and the theory of plate tectonics?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "What was it like during the time dinosaurs were on earth?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What was earth's landmass like during the Mesozoic era?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D394092",
"passage": "Dinosaurs Dinosaurs were a group of animals that ruled our world for about 150 million years. They lived during the geologic middle ages of the Earth’s history, in a time that is called the Mesozoic era. Dinosaurs were reptiles and belonged to the greatest animals on Earth. The Age of Dinosaurs The Mesozoic era is often called the Age of Dinosaurs. It began about 250 million years ago and ended about 65 million years ago. Geologists divide it into 3 parts:the Triassicthe Jurassicthe Cretaceous During the Mesozoic period the Earth consisted of only one single mass of land. About 200 million years ago this huge continent, Pangaea, broke into many pieces, which started to drift apart. Continents moved slowly into the position they are today. The climate during the Age of Dinosaurs was different than today’s. It was warmer and there was more vegetation. The land was full of swamps, green plains, rivers and lakes. The first forests, mostly conifers that had cones on them emerged.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What was it like during the time dinosaurs were on earth?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "That's really cool. Could such a continent form again?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That's really cool. Could such a huge continent like Pangaea form again?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2505307",
"passage": "The lateral movement of the plates is typically at speeds of several centimeters per year. Formation of Pangaea Pangaea was not the first supercontinent believed to have existed. From the evidence available, scientists have reconstructed a predecessor, termed Pannotia, that may have formed about 600 mya, before dividing again some 50 million years later. Another, earlier hypothesized supercontinent is Rodinia, believed to have formed approximately 1,100 mya and divided 750 mya. Tentative evidence suggests that the Columbia (supercontinent) existed between 1.8 and 1.5 billion years ago. There is also some evidence for an even earlier supercontinent named Kenorland, existing between ~2.7 billion years to ~2.1 billion years ago, and Earth's possibly first supercontinent named Vaalbara, existing between ~3.3 billion years to ~2.8 billion years ago. Rodinia, believed to have formed 1.1 billion years ago during the Proterozoic, was the supercontinent from which all subsequent continents, sub or super, derived. Paleozoic era (542 - 251 mya)Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian The hypothesized supercontinent Gondwana is believed to have been involved in the formation of Pangaea.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What is the age of dinosaurs on earth like?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Okay. You mentioned three periods in the Dinosaur era. What was characteristic about the first one?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Okay. You mentioned three periods in the Mesosoic Era. What was characteristic about the Triassic Period?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1693145",
"passage": "It was during the Triassic period that archosaurs (\"\"ruling reptiles\"\"), including dinosaurs, crocodiles, and Pterosaurs first evolved. Prior to the Triassic, during the previous Permian era, mammal-like reptiles had been the dominant land animals. Some survived into the Triassic, but they dramatically declined, apparently out-competed by the dinosaurs. The mammal-like reptiles did however give rise to the first mammals, these being tiny mouse-sized animals. The dominant plants during the Triassic period were conifers, ferns, ginkgos and horsetails. Here is a map of the world during the early Triassic (about 225 million years ago). At this time, all the continents were combined into one massive super-continent, known as Pangaea: The different geography of the world also led to a different climate. On the whole, the Triassic was generally hot and dry, and there was no glaciation or ice caps at the poles (polar regions were moist and temperate). The interior of Pangaea would have had a highly seasonal continental climate, with very hot summers and cold winters.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What was characteristic about the first dinosaur period?"
},
{
"number": 7,
"raw_utterance": "What about the second?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What was characteristic about the Jurassic Period?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2877122",
"passage": "The Jurassic Period – 199 to 145.5 million years ago Enter the middle period of the Mesozoic Era. In this period, land was breaking up into separate continents. There were new kinds of forests and all the plants that exist today. Species of dinosaurs had become extinct and new species had appeared. Among them was Dilophosaurus [ image] which is estimated to have existed to about 194 million years ago. It is believed to have been about 20 feet in length and to have weighed about 1,000 pounds. Another species of dinosaur was Brachiosaurus [ image ], one of the biggest land animals yet found. It has been described as having been as tall as 52 feet and as eating herbs, leaves and fruits from the tops of trees. It is described as having existed as long ago as 156 million years and becoming extinct by 145 million years ago. There was also a pigeon-size dinosaur, Epidexipteryx hui, whose remains were discovered in the hills of Inner Mongolia in late 2007.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What about the second dinosaur era?"
},
{
"number": 8,
"raw_utterance": "And the last?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What was characteristic about the Cretaceous Period?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2877122",
"passage": "\"\"The Cretaceous Period – 145.5 to 65.5 million years ago The Cretaceous Period is the last of the three periods of the Mezoaic Era and is described as the last period with non-flying dinosaurs, a period ending 65.5 million years ago. During this period the continents had separated, but Australia and Antarctica were still joined. Each continent had its own flora and fauna. There were now flowering plants such as magnolias and waterlilies. Around 115 million years ago a bird-like creature with wings of skin rather than feathers, a pterosaur, was in the skies over what today is Brazil. It had a wingspan of five meters (16.4 feet) and when standing its shoulders were about one meter (39.37 inches) from the ground. Among the last of the non-flying dinosaurs was Tyrannosaurus Rex, or T-Rex as it has been called [ image ]. It is believed to have lived from approximately 68 to 65 million years ago. It was a villain in the science fiction movie Jurassic Park (although it was not of the Jurassic Period.) T-Rex was an aggressive flesh eater.",
"passage_id": 5,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What was the dinosaur era like on Earth?"
},
{
"number": 9,
"raw_utterance": "What happened to dinosaurs after then?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What happened to dinosaurs after the Cretaceous period ended?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1319815",
"passage": "Most dinosaur species lived and died out during this period, but at the end of the Cretaceous period (65 million years ago), all remaining types of dinosaurs (with the exception of birds which had already evolved, and are widely believed to be descended from dinosaurs) died out. At the same time many other creatures (for example Ammonites , and Belemnites , as well as Pterosaurs , and many large marine reptiles such as Mosasaurs . Plesiosaurs and Pliosaurs ) also became extinct. In fact, all animals weighing more than 55 pounds (25 kilograms) seem to have died out! While are not sure what happened, we do know that something happened at about 65 million years ago. This event shows up as clear boundary in the rocks, known as the \"\"K-T boundary\"\", the extinction event usually being referrred to as the \"\"Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction\"\". Scientists have proposed many different possible explanations for what may have happened, and why this mass extinction might have happened: (Note: Sometimes these suggested explanations are informally called \"\"theories\"\", however in this case \"\"hypotheses\"\" is the correct term, since in science a theory means a well-substantiated explanation of some natural phenomenon or observation, whereas as \"\"hypothesis\"\" means a suggested explanation which needs to be tested against experimental evidence).",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What happened to dinosaurs after Tyrannosaurus Rex was killed?"
},
{
"number": 10,
"raw_utterance": "How do the evolution of dinosaurs across the three periods compare?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How do the evolution of dinosaurs across the three periods in the Mesozoic era compare?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D2291610",
"passage": "But the fact is that dinosaur diversity reached its peak in the ensuing Cretaceous period. Geography and Climate During the Jurrasic Period The Jurassic period witnessed the breakup of the Pangaean supercontinent into two big pieces, Gondwana in the south (corresponding to modern-day Africa, South America, Australia, and Antarctica) and Laurasia in the north (Eurasia and North America). At about the same time, intra-continental lakes and rivers formed that opened new evolutionary niches for aquatic and terrestrial life. The climate was hot and humid, with steady rainfall, ideal conditions for the explosive spread of lush, green plants. Terrestrial Life During the Jurassic Period Dinosaurs: During the Jurassic period, relatives of the small, quadrupedal, plant-eating prosauropods of the Triassic period gradually evolved into multi-ton sauropods like Brachiosaurus and Diplodocus. This period also saw the concurrent rise of medium- to large-sized theropod dinosaurs like Allosaurus and Megalosaurus. This helps explain the evolution of the earliest, armor-bearing ankylosaurs and stegosaurs. Mammals: The mouse-sized early mammals of the Jurassic period, only recently evolved from their Triassic ancestors, kept a low profile, scurrying around at night or nesting high up in trees so as not to get squashed under the feet of bigger dinosaurs.",
"passage_id": 6,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How do the evolution of dinosaurs across the three periods compare?"
},
{
"number": 11,
"raw_utterance": "That's interesting. How scientifically accurate was the movie?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "That's interesting. How scientifically accurate was the first Jurassic Park movie?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_d1bb7bbcaf67685ccb141065fc34b676",
"passage": "You might expect watching \"Jurassic Park\" (or \"Jurassic World,\" the latest installment of the franchise) with a bunch of dinosaur experts to be kind of a drag. We all realize that the dinosaurs onscreen are lifelike, but not realistic. They look the way movie watchers want dinosaurs to look, not the way scientists truly believe they looked. [‘I enjoyed the whole absurdity of it': Paleontologists review ‘Jurassic World.’] But in reality, paleontologists seem to have a soft spot for the books and movies. Why? Because the love of dinosaurs they inspired back in the early '90s arguably changed the research field forever. \"There was a wonderful explosion in interest after that first movie,\" Matthew Mossbrucker, director and chief curator of the Morrison Natural History Museum, told The Post. \"I really think it's partially responsible for giving me a career.\" After screening \"Jurassic World\" with a Post reporter, two paleontologists from The Smithsonian had similar thoughts. Even if they think a lot of it is basically just dino porn.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How scientifically accurate was the movie Jurassic Park?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 125,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I’d like to learn more about frogs. What’s the biggest one?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I’d like to learn more about frogs. What’s the biggest one?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D611430",
"passage": "Goliath Frog – The World's Biggest Frog Posted on November 3, 2010 by Susan Most frogs can fit in the palm of your hand, or even on the tip of your finger. But the Goliath frog ( Conraua goliath ), the world’s largest frog, may grow up to 3 feet long when it is stretched out and can weigh as much as a newborn baby, about 7 lbs (3.2 kg). A Goliath frog with young friends (from Marginalia.ako.net.nz)The Goliath frog’s greenish brown color helps to hide it among wet moss-covered rocks in fast-flowing rivers in the dense coastal rainforest of Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea in western Africa. Unlike most other frogs and toads, Goliath frogs have no vocal sac and so courtship does not involve displaying any calls. They mainly eat crabs, but will also eat insects and smaller frogs. The Goliath frog can live up to 15 years. Because Goliath frogs live in such a small area of the rainforest, they are highly vulnerable to habitat loss through logging and clearance of forest for agricultural land.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What’s the biggest frog in the world?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What's been done to protect them?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What has been done to protect Goliath frogs?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_1117403",
"passage": "The IUCN has highlighted the need for conservation measures, in cooperation with local communities, to make sure the hunting is at sustainable levels. To a lesser extent they are also threatened by habitat loss and degradation. They were extensively exported to zoos and the pet trade, but have proven shy and nervous in captivity. Although captives may live longer than their wild counterparts, the species has not been bred in captivity. Due to their classification as an endangered species, the Equatorial Guinean government has declared that no more than 300 goliaths may be exported per year for the pet trade, but few now seem to be exported from this country. Section::::External links. Section::::External links.:Media. BULLET::::- Photos of goliath frogs with people at Queensland Frog Society",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What's been done to protect Goliath frogs?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Has that been effective?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Has the Equatorial Guinean government's conservation measures to protect Goliath frogs been effective?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D611430",
"passage": "The construction of dams threatens the breeding habitat of these frogs. The frogs have been heavily collected for zoos and the pet trade, but Goliath frogs don’t breed or survive well in captivity. Goliaths are also highly prized as delicacy by local people. The IUCN (The International Union for Conservation of Nature) sites Goliath frogs as an endangered species because of a 50% decline in population size in the last three generations. Goliath frog image from animals.uua.cn Mbo tribesmen believe the frogs are wizards of sacred waterfalls. The only real hope for these amphibian wizards is the preservation of their rainforest home. Learn more SALAMANDERS IN CRISIS! An Overview of Why Salamander Conservation is Needed A Prince Becomes a Frog: The Prince Charles Frog Many Thanks, and a Red-Eyed Tree Frog for You! Frog Facts Everyone Should Know This entry was posted in Deforestation and frogs, Frogs and the Rainforest, Learn about Frogs and tagged African frogs, biggest frog on earth, Conraua goliath, earth's biggest frog, endangered frogs, giant frog, gigantic frogs, goliath frog, International Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, Rainforest Frogs, world's biggest frog.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Has the photos of goliath frogs with people at Queensland Frog Society been effective?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "How can I help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "How can I help with protecting Goliath frogs?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D466918",
"passage": "They are known to live up to 15 years in the wild. In captivity they can live an additional 5 years. Goliath Frog Conservation Due to habitat destruction the number of Goliath Frogs left in the wild continue to diminish. At this point in time they are considered to be endangered. There are programs in place to help learn more about them so that their habitat can be saved. There is hope that the number of them will increase but it is going to take time, money, and plenty of people willing to commit their time the cause. Goliath Frog Facts and Information / Photo taken by Ryan Somma Goliath Frogs Related Articles",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "How can I help the conservation of Goliath frogs?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Okay, that’s the biggest. What is the smallest?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the smallest frog?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1700940",
"passage": "\"World's smallest frog discovered By Richard Black Environment correspondent, BBC News11 January 2012Share The tiny frog sits easily on a US dime, whose diameter is 18mm A frog species that appears to be the world's smallest has been discovered in Papua New Guinea by a US-based team. At 7mm (0.27 inches) long, Paedophryne amauensis may be the world's smallest vertebrate - the group that includes mammals, fish, birds and amphibians. The researchers also found a slightly larger relative, Paedophryne swiftorum. Presenting the new species in PLo S One journal, they suggest the frogs' tiny scale is linked to their habitat, in leaf litter on the forest floor. What are amphibians? First true amphibians evolved about 250 million years ago Three orders: frogs (inc. toads), salamanders (inc. newts) and the limbless caecilians Adapted to many aquatic and terrestrial habitats Present on every continent except Antarctica Many metamorphose from larvae to adults Amphibians videos, news and facts: BBC Nature Finding the frogs was not an easy assignment.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Okay, that’s the biggest goliath frog. What is the smallest?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Why would leaf litter affect its size?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why would leaf litter affect the size of a frog?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1591590",
"passage": "(Related: \"\"Smallest Frogs Found—Each Tinier Than an M&M. \"\")It's obvious \"\"they're adapting to fill a niche that nothing else is filling,\"\" he said. Indeed, the frogs likely evolved their tiny sizes to eat tiny invertebrates, such as mites, that are ignored by bigger predators, said study co-author Christopher Austin, a biologist at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. Tiny Frogs Hard to Catch Discovered in 2010 but announced on Wednesday, all the species of the Paedophyrne genus are tiny and seem to live solely amid leaf litter on New Guinea's rain forest floor. Scientists locate the teensy animals by listening for their calls and trying to zero in on the sources of the sounds—no mean feat, since the high pitch of the calls make their sources especially hard for human hearing to locate. Austin and graduate student Eric Rittmeyer tried four times to find the frogs before exasperatedly grabbing a big handful of leaf litter and putting it in a plastic bag.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why would leaf litter affect Goliath frog size?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 126,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "I want to go on vacation somewhere in Europe with good food. What are some beautiful places?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "I want to go on vacation somewhere in Europe with good food. What are some beautiful places?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_JJMOJBBY5II6RD6SJH7DYZ22RE",
"passage": "Adding a third city is dealer’s choice, but I’d go with Amsterdam, a 3½ -hour journey from Paris via high-speed Thalys train. All of these cities are walkable and offer mass transit, so no stress about driving a rental car in unfamiliar territory. If this is only the first of many future trips to Europe, delving into one country makes sense. Italy would be my choice, as it offers so many different personalities. Rome, Florence and Venice are the top three cities for first-timers. Fly into Venice, take Trenitalia trains to Florence and Rome, then fly home from Rome. From Florence, add a day trip to the Tuscan countryside. From Venice, visit the Dolomites (Italian Alps). If renting a car isn’t an option, ask your concierge to recommend a driver for side trips or book day tours through a company such as City Wonders or Viator. Q: What’s the best way to pay for hotels, meals, transportation, et cetera, during my upcoming trip to Europe?",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What are some beautiful places to go on vacation somewhere in Europe with good food?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "Yes, it'll be my first time. Where should I consider?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Yes, it'll be my first time in Europe. Where should I consider visiting in Italy?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_SG7AN7GJTAI6TPQF65VMJ3DBRQ",
"passage": "RAVELLO, Italy — There are two kinds of people: Those who like active vacations and those who like sedentary vacations. I’m one of the weird hybrids who likes both. That makes me, I suppose, the Jekyll and Hyde of holidayers. Luckily, my partner — who is the boss not only of her two boys but also of me — shares my dual mind-set. Accordingly, my family and I began our recent trip to Italy with an educational visit to Rome and Pompeii and ended with a sybaritic idyll on the Amalfi Coast. The weather, food and amenities were all perfect. The only problem is that a lot of people had the same idea. August being the height of the high season, we predictably had to battle our way through hordes of fellow tourists. Yet not even overcrowding (or the political chaos in Rome) can spoil Bella Italia. You can easily get punch-drunk on its splendors, from Bernini’s sublime statues to the Amalfi Coast’s majestic cliffs. One of the highlights was a few nights on Capri, a small isle in the Tyrrhenian Sea that has hosted pleasure seekers since the days when Emperor Tiberius built villas there.",
"passage_id": 0,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Where should I consider for my first time in Europe?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "What should I not miss on the Coast?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What should I not miss on the Amalfi Coast?",
"canonical_result_id": "WAPO_0f6278f4-8512-11e2-98a3-b3db6b9ac586",
"passage": "Details, Amalfi Coast It was late morning by the time my friend Karen and I arrived in Amalfi (via bus, train and boat from Naples), and the central plaza was buzzing. People shuffled into the plentiful limoncello shops and gathered on the steep staircase leading to the Duomo di Sant’ Andrea, the 9th-century Romanesque cathedral that stands at the heart of the town. Keeping a watchful eye over the plaza were an elderly couple, high on their top-floor balcony. Wrapped in snug dressing gowns, the pair surveyed the scene in silence. Amalfi’s surge in popularity began in Edwardian times, when wealthy families from across Europe deemed it a pleasant place to spend their winters. By the 1950s, it had gained a reputation for glamour and sophistication. Today, it attracts travelers in search of fine food, eye-popping scenery and weather that’s nothing short of sublime. Rising early the next morning to the chimes of the cathedral, we pulled on our walking boots, grabbed our daypacks — laden with picnic snacks — and set off for Praiano, a westward journey of about seven miles.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What should I not miss on the Coast of the Amalfi Coast?"
},
{
"number": 4,
"raw_utterance": "What food is it known for?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What food is the Amalfi known for?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1365131",
"passage": "Pasticceria Pansa has overpriced coffee but excellent traditional Amalfitani cakes and a shaded morning position in the Piazza Duomo. Directly opposite Pansa is Bar Francese and this is where prime aperitivo hour occurs in Amalfi for those holidaymakers and touring Italians who want to be seen. Nearby is Bar Savoia for very good cakes to take away. Up the main concourse from the piazza check out Pasticceria Leone which has excellent sweets, biscuits (all made on site) and espresso. There is a small bar next to a mini-mart in Piazza dei Dodgi, the little square off the Duomo, and it is very popular for locals and people watching. Grand Caffe overlooking the main beach is also nice for a drink (their light lunches are very hit and miss however) with lovely relaxing views up the coast while the Marina Grande restaurant operate a bar on the beach with funky decor and candle-light, which is a very good choice on a hot summer night. Bar Flavio Gioia opposite the main ferry pier and parking bay has the best gelato in town and offers a good pit stop before taking a bus from the nearby terminal or catching a ferry.",
"passage_id": 10,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What food is Amalfi known for?"
},
{
"number": 5,
"raw_utterance": "Duomo? What’s that?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What is the Duomo on the Amalfi Coast?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1589300",
"passage": "A duomo is an Italian word for a cathedral, or a Catholic church where the bishop is located. All cathedrals, including the Duomo Cathedral of Florence, are designed with four perpendicular arms so that the entire building has the shape of a cross, symbolizing the crucifixion of Christ. The long arms running from west to east are called the nave, and the shorter ones from north to south are the transept. The area where the nave and transept meet is called the crossing. Historical Background During the time when the Duomo was built, Italy was full of city-states, or cities operating as independent governments, that were building up new wealth from international trade. As such, they were constantly competing with each other. Sometimes this meant war, but usually the competitions were simply designed to embarrass the other or prove that one city was the richest and most powerful in the area. One popular way to do this was by constructing massive buildings that required lots of money, manpower, and technological innovation.",
"passage_id": 1,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What’s the Duomo in Italy known for?"
},
{
"number": 6,
"raw_utterance": "Cool! What kinds of innovations?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What were the technological innovations in Italian cathedrals or catholic churches (the Duomo)?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1589300",
"passage": "Because the Duomo of Florence was meant to emphasize size, the inside crossing was 140 feet wide. This was entirely new for churches and made the inside feel extremely spacious. Although the entire cathedral is incredible, the most famous architectural feature is the dome, called the cupola in Italian. Around 1417, the building commission awarded Filippo Brunelleschi and Lorenzo Ghiberti the task of building a dome on the top of the cathedral. Ghiberti ended up dropping out of the project because he was working on another part of the cathedral. Brunelleschi was facing a monumental task. The area that the dome had to cover, the 140-foot crossing, was so big that nobody knew how to build a dome that wouldn't be so heavy it would collapse. After lots of mathematical calculations, Brunelleschi decided to build a dome with a slight point, rather than a smooth, round top. This style, called ogival, helped reduce the pressure of the structure and made the base of the dome responsible for supporting its weight, which made it stronger.",
"passage_id": 3,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What kinds of innovations did the cities in Amalfi undergo?"
}
]
},
{
"number": 127,
"turn": [
{
"number": 1,
"raw_utterance": "Why is it important to reduce runoff in urban areas?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Why is it important to reduce runoff in urban areas?",
"canonical_result_id": "KILT_18522361",
"passage": "Despite concerted efforts, many communities lack the funds to fully address these issues, and often seek funds elsewhere. Numerous watersheds within Los Angeles County, California do not meet state water quality standards, despite spending $100 million a year on clean water programs to combat issues such as urban runoff. To combat this problem, officials have introduced a measure that would assess a fee to homeowners and local businesses in attempt to raise $290 million for effective urban runoff management. Section::::Prevention and mitigation. Effective control of urban runoff involves reducing the velocity and flow of stormwater, as well as reducing pollutant discharges. A variety of stormwater management practices and systems may be used to reduce the effects of urban runoff. Some of these techniques (called best management practices (BMPs) in the US), focus on water quantity control, while others focus on improving water quality, and some perform both functions. /div Pollution prevention practices include low impact development (LID) or green infrastructure techniques - known as Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) in the UK, and Water-Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) in Australia and the Middle East - such as the installation of green roofs and improved chemical handling (e.g. management of motor fuels & oil, fertilizers and pesticides).",
"passage_id": 9,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "Why is reducing runoff in urban areas important?"
},
{
"number": 2,
"raw_utterance": "What practices could I use at home to help?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "What best management practices could I use at home to reduce runoff?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D3140149",
"passage": "You can use it to store stormwater and/or allow stormwater to infiltrate into the soil. Downspout disconnection could be especially beneficial to cities with combined sewer systems. Examples Milwaukee Downspout Disconnection Exit Portland, OR, Downspout Disconnection Program Top of Page Rainwater Harvesting This rainwater harvesting system is adapted to the architecture of the building and its surroundings. Rainwater harvesting systems collect and store rainfall for later use. When designed appropriately, they slow and reduce runoff and provide a source of water. This practice could be particularly valuable in arid regions, where it could reduce demands on increasingly limited water supplies. Examples New York City Rain Barrel Giveaway Program Arizona Municipal Water Users Association Top of Page Rain Gardens A rain garden can be beautiful as well as functional. Rain gardens are versatile features that can be installed in almost any unpaved space. Also known as bioretention, or bioinfiltration, cells, they are shallow, vegetated basins that collect and absorb runoff from rooftops, sidewalks, and streets. This practice mimics natural hydrology by infiltrating, and evaporating and transpiring—or “evapotranspiring”—stormwater runoff.",
"passage_id": 2,
"automatic_rewritten_utterance": "What practices could I use at home to reduce the effects of urban runoff?"
},
{
"number": 3,
"raw_utterance": "Maybe I could collect it for my garden. I’d like to learn more about using a barrel. What should I consider?",
"manual_rewritten_utterance": "Maybe I could collect it for my garden. I’d like to learn more about using a barrel. What should I consider when picking a rain barrel?",
"canonical_result_id": "MARCO_D1370750",
"passage": "Collecting rain for use later also keeps it from entering your foundation, crawl space or basement. Some cities offer financial incentives for using rainwater for irrigation as a supplement to municipal water. Caution Check for restrictions on rain barrels and rain harvesting in your area. You may need a permit in some locations, or the use of rain barrels may be prohibited or governed by state, local or neighborhood regulations. Rain Barrel Considerations Plan to install the barrel at a downspout near where you need the water. A rain barrel supplies low-pressure water, and the flow rate decreases as the barrel empties. Elevating the barrel improves the flow rate, and some barrels come with a pump to increase water pressure. The increased flow can supply low-pressure drip irrigation, but sprinklers and hose-end sprayers do not work with a rain barrel. Your other alternatives for dispensing the water are a garden hose, soaker hose or watering can. Estimate how much rainwater you'll capture. Collection rates vary depending on the slope and size of the roof, but for estimation purposes, during a 1-inch rainfall you can collect a little over half a gallon for each square foot of roof.",